List of Individuals Recognised as Political Prisoners by the Memorial Human Rights Centre (with the Exception of Those Persecuted in connection with the Realisation of their Right to Freedom of Religion) as of 30 October 2020

Publication date: 30.10.2020

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We consider political prisoners to be individuals who are serving a prison sentence, as well as those being held in custody or under house arrest as a form of pre-trial detention. We reckon among political prisoners individuals who are being persecuted in connection with the realisation of their legitimate rights as well as those who are being unlawfully or disproportionately persecuted by the authorities for political reasons. We do not regard as political prisoners those individuals who used violence against the person or called for violence on the grounds of religion, nationality, race etc. All the criteria for considering individuals as political prisoners are published on our website.

There are 65 names in the present list. The names of those who are being persecuted mainly in connection with the realisation of their right to freedom of religion can be found in a separate list. This list is far from being complete. It includes only those individuals and cases for which we have managed to collect and analyse sufficient information for a convincing conclusion to be drawn about a politically motivated and illegal nature of their criminal prosecution. Today, the list does not contain the names of a large number of people who have been deprived of liberty, and whose prosecution contains indications of illegality or political motivation, but for whose cases we have either not yet received the required information, or have not yet fully analysed the information.

The political prisoners come from different groups persecuted by the State for political reasons. The ‘Ukrainian trail’ can be clearly traced in the cases of current or former Ukrainian citizens Andrii Kolomiyets, Oleksandr Shumkov, Oleksandr Marchenko, Hlib Shabliy, Aleksei Bessarabov, and Vladimir Dudka. and in the cases of Russians Vladimir Domnin and Aleksandr Atamanov.

Restriction of the right to assembly has remained one of the most important goals of politically motivated incarceration. After the manifestations in central Moscow on 27 July and 3 August 2019, real and supposed protesters faced absurd criminal charges: Danil Beglets, Kirill Zhukov, Yevgeny Kovalenko, Ivan Podkopayev, Eduard Malyshevsky, Yegor Lesnykh, Maksim Martintsov, Konstantin Kotov, and Sergei Surovtsev are among them. Six Ingush opposition leaders – Akhmed Barakhoyev, Musa Malsagov, Ismail Nalgiev, Malsag Uzhahov, Barakh Chemurziev, Zarifa Sautieva, Bagaudin Khautiev, and Magomed Khamkhoyev – were arrested after protesters clashed with police forces in Magas on 27 March 2019. Arbitrary detentions of real and supposed supporters of the Russian opposition leader Vyacheslav Maltsev in connection with their actual or intended participation in the protests on 5 November 2017 developed into several criminal cases. Presently, only a small number of those whose persecution is connected to ‘the 5 November’ case appear in the present list – Yan Sidorov, Vladislav Mordasov, Oleg Dmitriev, Oleg Ivanov, and Sergei Ozerov.

The Russian authorities have intensified a crackdown on freedom of expression and dissemination of information, particularly, in the Internet: Airat Dilmukhametov, Vladislav Sinitsa, Mark Galperin, Nikolai Platoshkin, Aitakhadzhi Khalimov, Ivan Lyubshin, Aleksandr Shabarchin, and Sergei Lavrov were deprived of liberty for trying to exercise this right. In Dagestan, local journalist Abdulmunin Gadzhiev was deprived of freedom on absurd, trumped-up terrorism-related charges.

Criminal prosecution has also been used to restrict freedom of association. The association of Kaliningrad regionalists of monarchist persuasion ‘B.A.R.S’ (the Baltic Vanguard of the Russian Resistance) was groundlessly labelled terrorist; its members – Aleksandr Orshulevich, Igor Ivanov, and Aleksandr Mamayev – found themselves behind bars. Ruslan Kostylenkov, Piotr Karamzin, Vyacheslav Kryukov, and Pavel Rebrovsky have been put behind bars in connection with the ‘Novoye Velichiye’ (New Greatness) case – an organisation essentially created by security services to improve the statistics on the fight against extremism. Antifascist activists from St. Petersburg and Penza Viktor Filinkov, Yulian Boyarshinov, Igor Shishkin, Andrei Chernov, Dmitry Pchelintsev, Maksim Ivankin, Mikhail Kulkov, Arman Sagynbayev, Ilya Shakursky, and Vasily Kuksov were convicted in connection with the ‘Set’ (Network) case fabricated by the FSB and declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group.

The high treason and espionage cases of Piotr Parpulov and Karina Tsurkan have helped propaganda to create the image of a Russia besieged by enemies.

Dozens of different articles of the Russian Criminal Code have been utilised as tools of political repression. The most widely used articles are those related to extremism (incitement of hatred and enmity; public appeals for extremist activities; organisation of the activities of an extremist organisation), terrorism (terrorist act; complicity in terrorist activity and justification of such an activity, organisation of a terrorist group), and maintaining law and order at public gatherings (multiple violations of the established procedure for organising gatherings; use of force against a public official).

The evolution of the system of criminal prosecution for terrorism, including prosecution for statements in support of terrorism and the application of the article on terrorist association of the Russian Criminal Code against political activists, is analysed in detail in a series of reports prepared by the Programme for the support of political prisoners of Memorial Human Rights Centre.

A 2020 report compiled by the Programme for the support of political prisoners of Memorial Human Rights Centre outlines the whole picture of politically motivated prosecution in Russia in 2018 – 2019.

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  1. Atamanov, Aleksandr Sergeyevich, was born on 2 October 1989. A resident of the city of Pyatigorsk, he is married with an underage child. At the time of his arrest, he worked as a freight handler and a taxi driver. He was sentenced to 4 years and 10 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 282.2, Part 1.1 (‘Recruiting others to take part in the activities of an extremist organisation’) of the Russian Criminal Code for allegedly recruiting for the Ukrainian nationalist organisation ‘Right Sector’ (‘Pravy Sektor’) banned in Russia, and under Article 228, Part 2 (‘Illegal acquisition, storage and transportation of narcotic substances on a large scale without the purpose of selling’). He was detained on 21 March 2019 and has been held in custody since 25 March 2019.
  2. Barakhoyev, Akhmed Osmanovich, was born on 19 April 1954. A resident of the village of Novy Redant in the Malgobek district of the Ingush republic, he is a member of the Ingush Committee of the National Unity and a member of the Council of the Teips (clans) of the Ingush People. He has a higher education degree. He is a pensioner. He was charged with committing a crime under Article 33, Part 3, in conjunction with Article 318, Part 2 (‘Organising acts of violence endangering the life or health of public officials’) and Article 282.1, Part 1 (‘Organisation of the activities of an extremist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code after the clashes of protesters with police in Magas on 27 March 2019. He has been held in custody since 3 April 2019.
  3. Beglets, Danil Yuryevich, was born in 1992. A resident of the city of Mytishchi of Moscow Oblast, he completed a specialised secondary education. He is a businessman. He is married with two children. He was sentenced to 2 years of imprisonment in a settlement penal colony under Article 318, Part 1 (‘Use of force against a public official’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a protester who took part in the manifestation in central Moscow on 27 July 2019. He has been held in custody since 9 August 2019.
  4. Bessarabov, Aleksei Yevgenyevich, was born on 5 December 1976. A resident of the city of Sevastopol in Crimea, he holds the citizenships of Russia and Ukraine. He holds higher education degrees from the Nakhimov Naval Institute in Sevastopol and the Faculty of Journalism of the Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. He served at the intelligence centre of the Ukrainian Navy and worked as an expert at the Ukrainian NGO Nomos, centre for assistance to the research of geopolitical problems and Euro-Atlantic cooperation in the Black Sea region. After the Russian annexation of Crimea in 2014, he became an entrepreneur. He is married with a child. As a defendant in the case of ‘Sevastopol saboteurs’, he was sentenced under Article 30, Part 1, in conjunction with Article 281, Part 2, Point ‘a’ (‘Preparation to an act of sabotage, committed as part of an organised group’) and Article 222.1, Part 3 (‘Illegal acquisition and storage of explosives, committed by an organised group’) of the Russian Criminal Code to 14 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony and a fine of 300 000 roubles. He has been held in custody since 9 November 2016.
  5. Boyarshinov, Yuly (Yulian) Nikolayevich, was born on 10 July 1991. A resident of the city of Saint Petersburg, he is a left-wing antifascist activist. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a steeplejack. He was sentenced to 5 years and 6 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 222.1, Part 1 (‘Illegal storage of explosives’) and Article 205.4, Part 2 (‘Participation in a terrorist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Set case, an organisation declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group. He has been held in custody since 21 January 2018.
  6. Chemurziev, Barakh Akhmetovich, was born on 17 May 1969. A resident of the village of Troitskaya of the Sunzha district of the Republic of Ingushetia, he is the chair of the Opora Ingushetii movement (The Mainstay of Ingushetia), a member of the Ingush Committee of the National Unity, and a member of the Presidium of the World Congress of the Ingush People. He is married with three children, one of them being disabled. He was charged with committing a crime under Article 33, Part 3, in conjunction with Article 318, Part 2 (‘Organising acts of violence endangering the life or health of public officials’) and Article 282.1, Part 2 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code after the clashes of protesters with police in Magas on 27 March 2019. He has been held in custody since 3 April 2019.
  7. Chernov, Andrei Sergeyevich, was born on 18 March 1989. A resident of the city of Penza, he is an antifascist activist of left-wing persuasion. Prior to his arrest, he worked as an assembler at a plant and studied at the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of the Penza Pedagogical University. He was sentenced to 14 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony under Article 205.4, Part 2 (‘Participation in a terrorist association’) and Article 30, Part 3, in conjunction with Article 228.1, Part 4, Point ‘g’ (‘Attempt to commit large-scale illegal dealing in drugs’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Set case, an organisation declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group. He has been held in custody since 9 November 2017.
  8. Dilmukhametov, Airat Akhnafovich, was born on 21 June 1966. A resident of the city of Ufa in the Republic of Bashkortostan, he is an opposition activist and an active member of the Bashir nationalist movement. He was sentenced to 9 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony under Article 280.1, Part 2 (‘Public appeals to actions aimed at violation of the territorial integrity of the Russian Federation’), Article 205.2, Part 2 (‘Public appeals to terrorist activities, public justification of terrorist activities, or terrorist propaganda using the Internet’), Article 280, Part 1 (‘Public appeals to extremist activities’) and Article 282.3, Part 1 (‘Fundraising for extremist activities’) of the Russian Criminal Code. He has been held in custody since 14 March 2019.
  9. Dmitriev, Oleg Sergeyevich, was born on 7 June 1979. A resident of the city of Almetievsk in the Republic of Tatarstan, he was employed as a construction worker. He was sentenced to 8 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony followed with 1 year of restricted freedom under Article 30, Part 1, in conjunction with Article 205, Part 2, Point ‘a’ (‘Preparation to a terrorist act committed by a group of people by preliminary agreement’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a supporter of the Russian nationalist leader Vyacheslav Maltsev. He has been held in custody since 2 November 2017.
  10. Dmitriev, Yuri Alekseyevich, was born on 28 January 1956. A resident of the city of Pertozavodsk in the Republic of Karelia, he is a historian, researcher of the mass graves of victims of political repression, the head of the Karelia branch of the Memorial Society, a member of the Commission for restoring the rights of rehabilitated victims of political repressions under the Government of the Republic of Karelia. Initially he was charged under Article 242.2, Part 2, Point ‘v’ (‘Use of a minor for the purposes of production of pornographic materials’), Article 135, Part 3 (‘Perverted acts without the use of force against a minor’), and Article 222, Part 1 (‘Illegal storage of main components of firearms’) of the Russian Criminal Code. Mr Dmitriev was acquitted of child pornography charges and was sentenced to 2 years and 6 months of restricted freedom for the illegal storage of firearms components but the Supreme Court of the Republic of Karelia reversed the verdict and sent the case for re-examination. Later Mr Dmitriev was charged under Article 132, Part 4, Point ‘b’ (‘Violent actions of sexual character against a minor’). On 22 July 2020, he was acquitted of the charges related to perverted acts, child pornography and illegal firearms storage and was sentenced to 3 years and 6 months of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony for violent actions of sexual character against a minor. On 29 September 2020, the Supreme Court of the Republic of Karelia delivered a new verdict regarding the charges of violent actions of sexual character against a minor and sentenced Dmitriev to 13 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony. Beside this, it sent the case related to the charges of perverted acts, child pornography, and illegal firearms storage for re-examination. Dmitriev was held in custody from 13 December 2016 to 27 January 2018 when he was released under a written undertaking not to leave the place. On 27 June 2018, Mr Dmitriev was taken into custody once again.
  11. Domnin, Vladimir Aleksandrovich, (Afanasiev, Andrei Aleksandrovich, before he changed his name in 2018) was born 7 December 1966. A resident of the city of Moscow, he is a businessman. He is an activist of nationalist persuasions. He has three underage children. He was sentenced to 9 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony Article 208, Part 2 (‘Participation in an illegal armed formation’ ), Article 222, Part 1 (Illegal storage of firearms and ammunition’), Article 282.2, Part 2 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist organisation’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with his alleged membership of the ‘Pravy Sektor’ banned in Russia, and his stay in the zone of the armed conflict in the East of Ukraine. Formally he has been in custody since 6 July 2018, in fact he has been deprived of freedom since 28 June 2018.
  12. Dudka, Vladimir Mikhailovich, was born on 20 September 1964. A resident of the city of Sevastopol in Crimea, he holds the citizenships of Russia and Ukraine. He graduated from the Faculty of Radio Intelligence of the Kaliningrad Naval Academy and served as an officer in the Ukrainian Navy. From 2011 to the Russian annexation of Crimea in 2014, he worked as a field engineer tasked with demining of the former WWII battlegrounds at the Ukrainian Ministry of Emergency Situations, later on – at the same position at the Russian Ministry of Emergency Situations. He is divorced. As a defendant in the case of ‘Sevastopol saboteurs’, he was sentenced under Article 30, Part 1, in conjunction with Article 281, Part 2, Point ‘a’ (‘Preparation to an act of sabotage, committed as part of an organised group’) and Article 222.1, Part 3 (‘Illegal acquisition and storage of explosives, committed by an organised group’) of the Russian Criminal Code to 14 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony and a fine of 350 000 roubles. He has been held in custody since 9 November 2016.
  13. Filinkov, Viktor Sergeyevich, was born on 10 July 1991. A resident of the city of Saint Petersburg, he holds the Kazakhstani nationality. He is a left-wing antifascist activist. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a programmer. He was sentenced to 7 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 205.4, Part 2 (‘Participation in a terrorist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Set case, an organisation declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group. He has been held in custody since 23 January 2018.
  14. Gadzhiev, Abdulmumin Khabibovich, was born on 18 June 1984. A resident of the city of Makhachkala in the Republic of Dagestan, he works as the editor of the department of religion of the Dagestani Chernovik newspaper (The Draft). He is married with four children. He was charged under Article 205.5, Part 2 (‘Participation in the activities of a terrorist organisation’), Article 205.1, Part 4 (‘Financing terrorist activities’), and Article 282.2, Part 2 (‘Participation in the activities of a extremist organisation’) of the Russian Criminal Code as an alleged member of the Islamic State in connection with an interview with an Islamic preacher. He has been held in custody since 14 June 2019.
  15. Galperin, Mark Izrailevich, was born on 20 April 1968. A resident of the town of Reutov in the Moscow Oblast. He graduated from the Moscow Automotive Institute and worked as a marketing specialist and a sales assistant. A civil society activist, one of the leaders of the ‘Novaya oppozitsiya’ movement. In 2015, he was charged under Article 212.1 (‘Repeated violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding gatherings, rallies, demonstrations, marches or picketing’). Mr Galperin gave a written undertaking not to leave the place of his permanent residence. On 29 September 2015, the Tverskoy district court of Moscow sentenced Mark Galperin to a fine of 200,000 rubles. Human Rights Centre Memorial considered his prosecution to be illegal and politically motivated. In 2016, Mr Galperin was given a suspended sentence of 2 years of imprisonment under Article 280, Part 2 (Public appeals for an extremist activity committed using the Internet’) of the Russian Criminal Code. In 2019, the suspended sentence was replaced with a real sentence of 1 year and 6 months of imprisonment in a settlement penal colony. He was held under house arrest from 7 June to 7 March 2017. He was taken into custody on 4 December 2019.
  16. Ivankin, Maksim Sergeyevich, was born on 28 December 1994. A resident of the city of Penza, he is an antifascist activist of left-wing persuasion. He was sentenced to 13 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony under Article 30, Part 3, in conjunction with Article 228.1, Part 4, Point ‘g’ (‘Attempt to commit large-scale illegal dealing in drugs’) and Article 205.4, Part 2 (‘Participation in a terrorist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Set case, an organisation declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group. He was detained on 4 July 2018 and taken into custody on the following day.
  17. Ivanov, Igor Romanovich, was born on 17 June 1996. An opposition activist of Russian nationalist persuasion from Kaliningrad. He was sentenced to 6 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 282.1, Part 2 (‘Participation in an extremist community’), Article 280, Part 1 (‘Public appeals for extremist activities’), Article 205.2, Part 1 (‘Public appeals for terrorist activities’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a member of ‘B.A.R.S.’ (the Baltic Vanguard of the Russian Resistance). Mr Ivanov has been held in custody since 27 May 2017.
  18. Ivanov, Oleg Aleksandrovich, was born on 29 June 1977. A resident of the city of Almetievsk in the Republic of Tatarstan, he was employed as an electrician. He was sentenced to 7 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony followed with 1 year of restricted freedom under Article 30, Part 1, in conjunction with Article 205, Part 2, Point ‘a’ (‘Preparation to a terrorist act committed by a group of people by preliminary agreement’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a supporter of the Russian nationalist leader Vyacheslav Maltsev. He has been held in custody since 2 November 2017.
  19. Karamzin, Piotr Aleksandrovich, was born on 23 April 1979. A resident of the city of Moscow, he earned a higher education degree in jurisprudence. At the time of his arrest, he was not officially employed. He was sentenced to 6 years and 6 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 282.1, Part 1 (‘Organisation of the activities of an extremist association’) and Article 282.1, Part 2 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Novoye Velichiye case. Mr Karamzin has been held in custody since 15 March 2018.
  20. Khalimov, Aitakhadzhi Visarkhadzhievich, was born on 9 February 1993. An ethnic Chechen, he holds the Kazakhstani nationality. At the moment of his arrest, he was in Kaliningrad where he came looking for a job. He completed secondary specialised education. He is married with an underage child. He was sentenced to 3 years and 6 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 205.2, Part 2 (‘Public incitement for terrorist activities, public justification of terrorism or propaganda of terrorism’) for posting videos on the Chechen war on his own account on the Russian social media network Vkontakte. He has been held in custody since 24 December 2019.
  21. Khamkhoyev, Magomed Musayevich, was born on 2 June 1987. A resident of the city of Nazran in the Republic of Ingushetia, he is a son-in-law of one of the leaders of the Ingush protest movement Akhmed Barakhoyev and a nephew of the Mufti of Ingushetia Isa Khamkhoyev. He holds a higher education degree. He is married with five underage children. He was charged under Article 33, Part 4, in conjunction with Article 318, Part 1 (‘Incitement for acts of violence not endangering life or health of public officials’) of the Russian Criminal Code. He has been held in custody since 3 April 2019.
  22. Khautiev, Bagaudin Adamovich, was born on 19 July 1990. A resident of the city of Nazran in the Republic of Ingushetia, he is the head of the Council of Youth Organisations of Ingushetia and a member of the Ingush Committee of the National Unity. He has a higher education degree. He is married with four children. He was charged with committing a crime under Article 33, Part 3, in conjunction with Article 318, Part 2 (‘Organising acts of violence endangering the life or health of public officials’) of the Russian Criminal Code and Article 282.1, Part 2 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code after the clashes of protesters with police in Magas on 27 March 2019. He has been held in custody since 3 April 2019.
  23. Kolomiyets, Andrii Volodymyrovych, was born on 8 May 1993. While holding a permanent registration in the village of Viktorivka in Kiev Oblast of Ukraine, he was also temporarily registered in the village of Yantarny of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic of the Russian Federation. He was sentenced to 10 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime colony under Article 30, Part 3, in conjunction with of Article 105, Part 2, Points ‘a’, ‘b’, ‘e’, ‘l’ (‘Attempted murder of two individuals in connection with their professional duties committed by generally dangerous means for reasons of political or ideological hatred’) of the Russian Criminal Code and under Article 228, Part 2 (‘Illegal acquisition, storage and transportation of plants containing narcotic or psychotropic substances on a large scale without the purpose of selling’) for his participation in the Euromaidan protests in Kiev in winter 2013 – 2014. Mr Kolomiyets has been held in custody since 15 May 2015.
  24. Kostylenkov, Ruslan Dmitiyevich, was born on 15 March 1993. A resident of the town of Khotkovo in Moscow Oblast, he completed a specialised secondary education. At the time of his arrest, he was not officially employed. He was sentenced to 7 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 282.1, Part 1 (‘Organisation of the activities of an extremist association’) and Article 282.1, Part 2 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Novoye Velichiye case. Mr Kostylenkov has been held in custody since 15 March 2018.
  25. Kotov, Konstantin Aleksandrovich, was born 22 February 1985. A resident of the city of Moscow, he is a civil society activist engaged in the assistance to political prisoners. He works as a programmer. He was sentenced to 1 year and 6 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 212.1 (‘Repeated violation of the rules governing public assemblies’) of the Russian Criminal Code for his participation in protests. He has been held in custody since 12 August 2019.
  26. Kovalenko, Yevgeny Dmitrievich, was born in 1971. A resident of the village of Stolbovaya in the Chekhov district of Moscow Oblast, he holds a higher education degree. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a security guard at the Russian railways company. He was sentenced to 3 years and 6 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 318, Part 1 (‘Use of force against a public official’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a protester who took part in the manifestation in central Moscow on 27 July 2019. He has been held in custody since 1 August 2019.
  27. Kryukov, Vyacheslav Vladislavovich, was born on 30 May 1998. A resident of Moscow, he was a third-year student of the Law Faculty of the Russian State University of Justice. He was sentenced to 6 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 282.1, Part 1 (‘Organisation of the activities of an extremist association’) and Article 282.1, Part 2 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Novoye Velichiye case. Mr Kryukov has been held in custody since 15 March 2018.
  28. Kudayev, Rasul Vladimirovich, was born on 23 January 1978. He resided in the village of Khasanya near the city of Nalchik of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic. He was sentenced to life imprisonment in a special-regime penal colony under Article 105, Points ‘a’, ‘e’, ‘zh’ and ‘z’ (‘Murder of two or more individuals by generally dangerous means by an organised group, out of mercenary interest related to banditry’) of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, Article 166, Part 4 (‘Unlawful occupancy of transport vehicles without the intention to commit theft committed by an organised group with the use of force dangerous to life and health, and also with the threat of using such force’), Article 205, Part 3 (‘Terrorist act using firearms committed by an organised group resulting in dangerous consequences’), Article 209, Part 2 (Participation in a stable armed group with the aim of assaulting individuals or organisations, and in the assaults committed by it’), Article 210, Part 2 (‘Participation in a criminal group’), Article 222, Part 3 (‘Illegal acquisition, transfer, sale, storage, transportation, or bearing of firearms, its basic parts, ammunition, explosives, and explosive devices committed by an organised group’), Article 30, Part 2, and Article 226, Part 4, Points ‘a’ and ‘b’ (‘Attempt to steal firearms and ammunition committed by an organised group with the use of force dangerous to life and health, and also with the threat of using such force’), Article 226, Part 4, Points ‘a’ and ‘b’ (‘Theft of firearms and ammunition committed by an organised group with the use of force dangerous to life and health, and also with the threat of using such force’), Article 279 (‘Active participation in an armed mutiny aimed at a forcible change of the constitutional order or a violation of the territorial integrity of the Russian Federation’), and Article 317 (‘Attempt on the life of law enforcement officers or military service personnel’) of the Russian Criminal Code for his alleged participation in the Nalchik attack on 13 October 2005. Mr Kudayev had been held in custody since 23 October 2005.
  29. Kuksov, Vasily Alekseyevich, was born on 21 May 1988. A resident of the city of Penza, he is an antifascist and animals’ rights activist of left-wing persuasion. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a design engineer and played in a rock band. He was sentenced to 9 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 205.4, Part 2 (‘Participation in a terrorist association’) and Article 222, Part 1 (‘Illegal storage of firearms and ammunition’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Set case, an organisation declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group. He has been held in custody since 19 October 2017.
  30. Kulkov, Mikhail Alekseyevich, was born on 12 October 1994. A resident of the city of Penza, he is an antifascist activist of left-wing persuasion. He was sentenced to 10 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony under Article 30, Part 3, in conjunction with Article 228.1, Part 4, Point ‘g’ (‘Attempt to commit large-scale illegal dealing in drugs’) and Article 205.4, Part 2 (‘Participation in a terrorist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Set case, an organisation declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group. He was detained on 4 July 2018 and taken into custody on the following day.
  31. Lavrov, Sergei Ivanovich, was born on 28 August 1991. A resident of the city of Kursk, he completed specialised secondary education. He is a left-wing civil activist. He was sentenced to 5 years of imprisonment in general-regime penal colony and compulsory psychiatric treatment under under Article 205.2, Part 2 (‘Public incitement for terrorist activities, public justification of terrorism or propaganda of terrorism’) for posts on social media. He was under house arrest from 5 June 2019 to 29 May 2020 when he was taken into custody.
  32. Lesnykh, Yegor Sergeyevich, was born on 8 November 1984. A resident of the city of Moscow, he is a blood donor, animal rights and anti-poverty activist. He completed a secondary specialised education. Prior to his arrest, he was a self-employed in the sphere of construction. He was sentenced to 3 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 318, Part 1 (‘Use of force against a public official’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a protester who took part in the manifestation in central Moscow on 27 July 2019. He has been held in custody since 14 October 2019.
  33. Lyubshin, Ivan Viktorovich, was born on 29 December 1982. A resident of the city of Kaluga, he worked as a sales assistant. He was sentenced to 5 years and 2 months of imprisonment in a general regime penal colony under Article 205.2, Part 2 of the Russian Criminal Code (‘Public appeals to terrorist activities, public justification of terrorist activities, or terrorist propaganda using the Internet’). He was detained on 15 October 2019, from 17 October to 25 December 2019 he was under house arrest, when he was released under the written undertaking not to leave the place. He was taken into custody on 5 March 2020.
  34. Malsagov, Musa Aslanovich, was born on 8 March 1972. A resident of the city of Nazran in the Republic of Ingushetia, he is a co-chair of the World Congress of the Ingush People, the chair of the Ingushetia branch of the Russian Red Cross, and a former member of the National Assembly of the Republic of Ingushetia from the United Russia party. He holds a higher education degree. He is married with four underage children. He was charged with committing a crime under Article 33, Part 3, in conjunction with Article 318, Part 2 (‘Organising acts of violence endangering the life or health of public officials’) after the clashes of protesters with police in Magas on 27 March 2019. He has been held in custody since 3 April 2019.
  35. Malyshevsky, Eduard Vadimovich, was born on 23 March 1972. A resident of the city of Khimki in Moscow Oblast, he is a refurbishment specialist. He sentenced to 2 years and 9 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 318, Part 1 (‘Use of force against a public official’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a protester who took part in the manifestation in central Moscow on 27 July 2019. He has been held in custody since 30 August 2019.
  36. Mamayev, Aleksandr Arkadiyevich (Father Nikolay), was born on 24 December 1960. A resident of the city of Kaliningrad. A priest of the Russian Orthodox Church, alternative to the Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate. He was sentenced to 6 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 282.1, Part 2 (‘Participation in an extremist community’), Article 280, Part 1 (‘Public appeals for extremist activities’), Article 205.2, Part 1 (‘Public appeals for terrorist activities’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a member of ‘B.A.R.S.’ (the Baltic Vanguard of the Russian Resistance). Mr Mamayev has been held in custody since 27 May 2017.
  37. Marchenko, Oleksandr Volodymyrovych, was born on 11 October 1971. A Ukrainian national, he is a resident of the Ukrainian city of Dnipro. He was charged under Part 1 of Article 30 in conjunction with Article 226.1, Part 1 (‘Preparation to acquire and illegally transfer military-related equipment from the territory of the Russian Federation through the customs border of the Customs Union of the Eurasian Economic Union’) and Article 276 (‘Espionage’) of the Russian Criminal Code. He has been held in custody since 18 February 2019.
  38. Martintsov, Maksim Alekseyevich, was born on 7 October 1993. A resident of the city of Moscow, he completed a secondary specialised education and worked as a laboratory engineer at a construction company. He was sentenced to 2 years and 6 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 318, Part 1 (‘Use of force against a public official’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a protester who took part in the manifestation in central Moscow on 27 July 2019. He has been held in custody since 14 October 2019.
  39. Miftakhov, Azat Fanisovich, was born on 22 March 1993. A resident of the city of Moscow, he is a PhD student at the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics of the Moscow State University. He is a person of Anarchist persuasion. The security services claim that Mr. Miftakhov is an active member of the libertarian political movement of Narodnaya Samooborona (The People’s Self-Defense). He is charged under Article 213, Part 2 (‘Hooliganism committed by a group of people by preliminary agreement’) for his alleged participation in an attack against a United Russia party office in Moscow and is suspected of committing a crime under Article 223.1, Part 1 (‘Illegal fabrication of explosive material or explosive devices’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the fabrication of an explosive device. On 12 February 2019, he was taken into custody in connection with the alleged hooliganism case being actually deprived of freedom since 1 February 2019.
  40. Mordasov, Vladislav Yevgenyevich, was born on 6 May 1996. A resident of the town of Bataysk in Rostov Oblast, he worked as a foundry man. He was sentenced to 4 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony under Article 30, Part 1, in conjunction with Article 212, Part 1 (‘Attempt to organise mass riots’) of the Russian Criminal Code in the context of the persecution of the Russian nationalist leader Vyacheslav Maltsev. Mr Mordasov was formally placed in custody on 10 November 2017, being actually deprived of freedom since 5 November 2017.
  41. Nalgiev, Ismail Makhmudovich, was born on 23 October 1991. A resident of the Republic of Ingushetia, he is the head of the regional NGO Vybor Ingushetii (The Choice of Ingushetia), a member of the Ingush Committee of the National Unity. He was charged with committing a crime under Article 33, Part 3, in conjunction with Article 318, Part 2 (‘Organising acts of violence endangering the life or health of public officials’) and Article 282.1, Part 2 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code after the clashes of protesters with police in Magas on 27 March 2019. He has been held in custody since 8 May 2019.
  42. Orshulevich, Aleksandr Vladimirovich, was born on 26 November 1987. A resident of city of Kaliningrad. He is an opposition activist of Russian nationalist persuasion. He was sentenced to 8 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 282.1, Part 1 (‘Organisation of the activities of an extremist community’), Article 280, Part 1 (‘Public appeals for extremist activities’), Article 205.2, Part 1 (‘Public appeals for terrorist activities’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a member of ‘B.A.R.S.’ (the Baltic Vanguard of the Russian Resistance). Mr Orshulevich has been held in custody since 27 May 2017.
  43. Ozerov, Sergei Ivanovich, was born on 6 April 1972. A resident of the town of Arzamas in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, he was employed as an industrial worker. He was sentenced to 8 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony followed with 1 year of restricted freedom under Article 30, Part 1, in conjunction with Article 205, Part 2, Point ‘a’ (‘Preparation to a terrorist act committed by a group of people by preliminary agreement’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a supporter of the Russian nationalist leader Vyacheslav Maltsev. He has been held in custody since 2 November 2017.
  44. Parpulov, Piotr Ivanovich, was born in 1955. A resident of the city of Sochi. From the 1980s to his detention in 2014, he worked as an air traffic control officer at the civilian airport in Sochi although he had already reached pensionable age. He was sentenced to 12 years in a strict-regime penal colony under Article 275 (‘High treason’) of the Russian Criminal Code for divulging unidentified classified information that was nonetheless published in the newspaper ‘Krasnaya Zvezda’ (‘Red Star’) and therefore available to the general public. Mr Parpulov has been in custody since 4 March 2014.
  45. Pchelintsev, Dmitry Dmitriyevich, was born on 14 May 1992. A resident of the city of Penza, he is an antifascist activist of left-wing persuasion. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a shooting instructor at the veteran organisation of the Union of Paratroopers of Russia. He was sentenced to 18 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony followed with 1 year and 6 months of restricted freedom under Article 205.4, Part 1 (‘Organisation of a terrorist association’) and Article 222, Part 1 (‘Illegal storage of firearms and ammunition’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Set case, an organisation declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group. He has been held in custody since 27 October 2017.
  46. Pichugin, Aleksey Vladimirovich, was born on 25 July 1962. A resident of the city of Moscow. He is a former head of the department for internal economic security for the Yukos oil company. Two guilty verdicts were delivered against him as a defendant in the Yukos case, in 2005 and 2007, under Article 162 (‘Robbery’) of the Russian Criminal Code and Article 105 (‘Murder’). He was sentenced to life imprisonment in a special-regime penal colony. Mr Pichugin has been in custody since 19 June 2003.
  47. Platoshkin, Nikolai Nikolayevich, was born on 19 October 1965. A resident of the city of Moscow, he is a former diplomat, an assistant professor and chair of International Relations and Diplomacy of the Moscow University for the Humanities. He is a politician, popular blogger of conservative left convictions and leader of the For a New Socialism movement. In 2019 Platoshkin was a candidate for the Communist Party of the Russian Federation in elections to the 7th State Duma in the 70th electoral district. He came second in the elections. He is charged under Article 207.1 (‘Public dissemination of false information on measures taken to ensure the security of population’) and Article 212, Part 1.1 (‘Calls to commit and participate in riots’) of the Russian Criminal Code. He has been held under house arrest since 4 June 2020.
  48. Podkopayev, Ivan Romanovich, was born on 28 October 1993. A resident of the city of Moscow, he completed a specialised secondary education. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a librarian. He was sentenced to 3 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 318, Part 1 (‘Use of force against a public official’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a protester who took part in the manifestation in central Moscow on 27 July 2019. Later his prison term was reduced to 2 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony. He has been held in custody since 27 July 2019.
  49. Polyudova, Daria Vladimirovna, was born on 4 February 1989. A resident of the city of Moscow, she is the leader of the Left Resistance opposition movement. She was charged under Article 280, Part 1.1 (‘Incitement of separatism’), Article 205.2, Part 1 (‘Public justification of terrorism’), and Article 205.2, Part 2 (‘Public justification of terrorism using the Internet’). She has been held in custody since 15 January 2020.
  50. Rebrovsky, Pavel Viktorovich, was born on 17 November 1986. A resident of the city of Moscow, he completed a specialised secondary education. At the time of his arrest, he was not officially employed. He was sentenced to 6 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Part One of Article 282.1 (‘Organisation of the activities of an extremist organization’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Novoye Velichiye case. Mr Rebrovsky was under house arrest from 15 March 2018 to March 2019 when he was released under a written undertaking not to leave the place. He was in custody from 29 April 2019 to 8 October 2019 when he was released under a written undertaking not to leave the place once again. On 29 October 2020 he was taken into custody.
  51. Sagynbayev, Arman Dauletovich, was born on 9 June 1992. A self-employed from Saint Petersburg, he is of antifascist persuasion and was in contact with antifascists from Penza, his official place of residence. He was sentenced to 6 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 205.4, Part 2 (‘Participation in a terrorist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Set case, an organisation declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group. He has been held in custody since 6 November 2017.
  52. Sautieva, Zarifa Mukharbekovna, was born on 1 May 1978. A resident of the town of Sunzha in the Republic of Ingushetia, she is a member of the Ingush Committee of the National Unity. She holds a higher education degree. She a former deputy director of the Memorial Museum of the Victims of Repressions in Ingushetia. She was charged with committing a crime under Article 33, Part 3, in conjunction with Article 318, Part 2 (‘Organising acts of violence endangering the life or health of public officials’) and Article 282.1, Part 2 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code after the clashes of protesters with police in Magas on 27 March 2019. She has been held in custody since 12 July 2019.
  53. Shabarchin, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich, was born on 23 June 1998. A resident of the city of Perm, he is a civil rights activist and blogger. As a defendant in the ‘Putin mannequin’ case, he was sentenced to 2 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 213, Part 2 (‘Hooliganism committed by a group of people by preliminary agreement’) of the Russian Criminal Code. He was taken into custody on 18 August 2020.
  54. Shabliy, Hlib Fedorovych, was born on 27 April 1975. A resident of the city of Sevastopol in Crimea, he holds the Russian and Ukrainian citizenships. He graduated from the Sevastopol Naval Institute, served as a Ukrainian naval officer, after retiring he gained a Bachelor’s degree in Hydrography and Meteorology and worked as a hydrographer. He is married with a child. Mr Shabliy was sentenced to 5 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 223.1, Part 1 (‘Illegal fabrication of explosive devices’) and Article 222.1, Part 1 (‘Illegal acquisition and storage of explosives and of explosive devices’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a defendant in the ‘Crimean saboteurs’ case. Mr Shabliy has been held in custody since 15 November 2016.
  55. Shakursky, Ilya Aleksandrovich, was born on 10 April 1996. A resident of the city of Penza, he is an antifascist activist of left-wing persuasion. Prior to his arrest, he studied at the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of the Penza Pedagogical University. He was sentenced to 16 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony followed with 1 year and 6 months of restricted freedom under Article 205.4, Part 1 (‘Organisation of a terrorist association’) and Article 222, Part 1 (‘Illegal storage of firearms and ammunition’) and Article 222.1, Part 1 (‘Illegal storage of explosives’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Set case, an organisation declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group. He has been held in custody since 27 October 2017.
  56. Shevchenko, Anastasia Nukzaryevna, was born on 23 October 1979. A resident of the city of Rostov-On-Don, she is an opposition activist and a member of the Board of the Civic Networking Movement ‘Otkryraya Rossiya’. She was charged under Article 284.1 (‘Carrying out activities in the territory of the Russian Federation of a foreign or international non-governmental organisation whose activities in the territory of the Russian Federation are designated as undesirable’). She has been under house arrest since 23 January 2019.
  57. Shishkin, Igor Dmitriyevich, was born on 24 August 1991. A resident of the city of Saint Petersburg, he is an antifascist activist of left-wing persuasion. He was sentenced to 3 years and 6 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 205.4, Part 2 (‘Participation in a terrorist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Set case, an organisation declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group. He has been held in custody since 25 January 2018.
  58. Shumkov, Oleksandr Serhiyovych, was born on 19 September 1989. A resident of the city of Kherson in Ukraine, he holds the Ukrainian nationality. At the time of his arrest, he served in the Ukrainian Armed Forces and worked as an investigator at the Military Prosecutor's Office of the Kherson garrison. He was sentenced to 4 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 282.2, Part 2 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist organisation’) of the Russian Criminal Code as an alleged member of the Ukrainian nationalist organisation ‘Right Sector’ (‘Pravy Sektor’) banned in Russia. Mr. Shumkov has formally been in custody since 6 September 2017.
  59. Sidorov, Yan Vladimirovich, was born on 9 October 1999. A resident of the city of Rostov-on-Don, he is a third-year student of the trade school of the Rostov branch of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. He was sentenced to 4 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony under Article 30, Part 1, in conjunction with Article 212, Part 1 (‘Attempt to organise mass riots’) of the Russian Criminal Code in the context of the persecution of real and alleged supporters of the Russian nationalist leader Vyacheslav Maltsev. Mr Sidorov was formally placed in custody on 10 November 2017, being actually deprived of freedom since 5 November 2017.
  60. Sinitsa, Vladislav Yuryevich (alias Max Steklov), was born on 17 June 1989. A resident of the city of Lyubertsy in Moscow Oblast, he holds a higher education degree. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a manager. He was sentenced under Article 282, Part 2, Point ’a’ (‘Actions aimed at inciting hatred and enmity towards a social group committed publicly using the Internet, with a threat of violence’) to 5 years of imprisonment in general-regime penal colony. He has been held in custody since 3 August 2019.
  61. Smyshlyayev, Maxim Nikolayevich, was born on 22 December 1982. He is a resident of the city of Rostov-on-Don of left persuasions. At the time of his arrest, he worked at a McDonald’s outlet and studied extramurally at the Institute of History and International Relations of the Southern Federal University. He was sentenced to 10 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony under Article 205.1, Part 3 (‘Complicity in the preparation of a terrorist act’) of the Russian Criminal Code for having allegedly aided a minor holding the citizenship of Ukraine in the preparation of a terrorist act that did not take place. Mr Smyshlyayev has been held in custody since 22 April 2016.
  62. Surovtsev, Sergei Yurievich, was born on 30 September 1989. A resident of the city of Moscow, he is a programmer and an IT-businessman. He was sentenced to 2 years and 6 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under under Article 318, Part 1 (‘Use of force against a public official’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a protester who took part in the manifestation in central Moscow on 27 July 2019. He has been held in custody since 28 November 2019.
  63. Tsurkan, Karina Valerievna, was born on 6 October 1974. Up to 2007, she resided in Moldova, later she moved to Moscow, Russia. At the time of her arrest, she worked as one the top managers of the Russian energy company Inter RAO. She was charged under Article 276 (‘Espionage’) of the Russian Criminal Code for her alleged transferring of economic data on the separatist entities in Eastern Ukraine. She has been held in custody since 14 June 2018.
  64. Uzhakhov, Malsag Musayevich, was born on 9 November 1952. A resident of the village of Barsuki of the Nazran district of the Republic of Ingushetia, he is the chair of the Council of the Teips (clans) of the Ingush People and a member of the Presidium of the World Congress of the Ingush People. He holds a higher education degree. He is married and is a pensioner. He was charged with committing a crime under Article 33, Part 3, in conjunction with Article 318, Part 2 (‘Organising acts of violence endangering the life or health of public officials’), Part 2 of Article 239 (‘Presiding over an association inducing individuals to refuse to discharge their civil duties or to commit other unlawful deeds’), and Article 282.1, Part 1 (‘Organisation of the activities of an extremist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code after the clashes of protesters with police in Magas on 27 March 2019. He has been held in custody since 19 April 2019.
  65. Zhukov, Kirill Sergeyevich, was born on 13 October 1990. He is a civil society activist. He was sentenced to 2 years and 6 months of imprisonment in a settlement penal colony under Article 318, Part 1 (‘Use of force against a public official’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a protester who took part in the manifestation in central Moscow on 27 July 2019. He has been held in custody since 1 August 2019.