List of Individuals Recognised as Political Prisoners by the Memorial Human Rights Centre (with the Exception of Those Persecuted in connection with the Realisation of their Right to Freedom of Religion) as of 9 November 2021

Publication date: 09.11.2021

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By the term ‘political prisoner' we mean both those serving custodial sentences and those who have been remanded in custody or placed under house arrest, or restrictions of a similar nature, before trial, as well as those subject to compulsory hospitalisation.

We include those prosecuted for exercising their legal rights as well as those who have been unlawfully, or manifestly disproportionately, prosecuted for political reasons by the authorities. We do not include those who have used violence against persons or have called for violence on grounds of religion, nationality, ethnicity, and so on. The full criteria for classification as a political prisoner can be found on our website.

The current list names 80 political prisoners,

not including those prosecuted primarily in connection with the exercise of freedom of religion, who are listed separately. The list is manifestly incomplete. It contains only those people and cases for which we have been able to collect and analyze sufficient evidence to draw a reasoned conclusion about the politically motivated and unlawful nature of the criminal prosecution. The list does not include the names of many individuals who have been deprived of liberty and in whose prosecution there is evidence of unlawful and political motivation but for whom we have either not yet received the necessary information about their cases or we are still analyzing information received.

A very wide range of victims of repressive state policies are represented among political prisoners.

The authorities use a great variety of charges to unlawfully imprison their political opponents and opposition activists. Among the victims of such prosecutions are Aleksei Navalny, who has become a symbol of resilience, his former colleagues Andrei Borovikov and Pavel Zelensky, the former executive director of Open Russia Andrei Pivovarov, the shaman Aleksandr Gabyshev, the Bashkir politician and writer Airat Dilmukhametov, the Moscow region environmental activist Vyacheslav Yegorov, the leftwing activist Darya Polyudova, the mathematician and activist of anarchist views Azat Miftakhov and others.

The historian and protector of historical memory Yury Dmitriev and the journalists Rashid Maisigov, Abdulmumin Gadzhiev, Armen Aramyan, Alla Gutnikova, Vladimir Metyolkin and Natalya Tyshkevich have all been imprisoned on various unfounded charges.

Among political prisoners there continue to be many victims of state suppression of freedom of assembly. These include the aforementioned Andrei Borovikov and Vyacheslav Yegorov, as well as the defendants in the Moscow Case related to the protests in Moscow in the summer of 2019 - Kirill Zhukov, Yegor Lesnykh, Eduard Malyshevsky, Maksim Martintsov and Sergei Surovtsev - and those convicted in the Palace Case related to the protests that took place across Russia in January and February 2021 - Olga Bendas, Pavel Grin-Romanov, Valery Yevsin, Ilya Pershin, Roman Pichuzhin, Aleksandr Federyakov, Gleb Maryasov, and Said-Mukhamad Dzumayev. Unfortunately, in the Palace Case, we have so far only been able to study the charges in a minority of the cases.

Both freedom of assembly and right of association are being infringed by prosecutions of the leaders of, and participants in, the Ingush people's movement Akhmed Barakhoyev, Musa Malsagov, Ismail Nalgiev, Akhmed Pogorov, Zarifa Sautieva, Malsag Uzhakhov, Barakh Chemurziev and Bagaudin Khautiev.

Right of association is being restricted by means of the criminal justice system. The Network, New Greatness, BARS and Artpodgotovka criminal cases, in which these organisations were unjustifiably designated as extremist or even terrorist, criminalise the legitimate activities of citizens. The names of those convicted in these cases are also included in this list.

Our list continues to contain many names of individuals imprisoned for their exercise of freedom of expression. These include Mikhail Alfyorov, Pavel Zelensky, Sergei Lavrov, Ivan Lyubshin, Darya Polyudova, Vladislav Sinitsa, Airat Dilmukhametov, Aitakhadzhi Khalimov, the brothers Salekh Magamadov and Ismail Isayev, as well as Salman Tepsurkayev who was abducted by security forces.

Our lists still contain individuals imprisoned on trumped-up charges in connection with the Russian authorities' anti-Ukrainian campaign that began in 2014: former and current Ukrainian citizens Andrii Kolomiets, Oleksandr Marchenko, Volodymyr Dudka, Oleksii Bessarabov, Oleh Prykhodko, and Russian citizens Vladimir Domnin and Aleksandr Atamanov.

Our list includes only Pyotr Parpulov and Karina Tsurkan of the considerable number of persons imprisoned on dubious charges of espionage and treason that often stem directly from state spymania. This is because of the secrecy and lack of access to the materials of most of such cases for analysis.

It is also important to note those fabricated criminal prosecutions of people who have in fact become hostages for those who are the real targets of the state machine. In addition to Russia's longest-serving political prisoner Aleksei Pichugin, these include Yury Zhdanov, the father of opposition activist Ivan Zhdanov.

As in previous years, dozens of articles of the Russian Criminal Code are being used as instruments of political repression. Articles 212.1, 284.1 and 354.1 of the Russian Criminal Code are, in our opinion, political in nature and contradict the Constitution. They should be repealed. Furthermore, put to similar use are legal provisions that are excessively vaguely worded, and impermissibly broadly interpreted, along with charges concerning the most various ‘ordinary' crimes applied by biased courts on the basis of fabricated evidence. A recent trend has been the widening of the completely unjustified application of anti-terrorist legislation.

  1. Alfyorov, Mikhail Yevgenyevich, was born on 8 August 1985. A resident of Kemerovo, he is a civil rights activist, blogger and a public defender who has repeatedly participated in the trials of local activists. He has a higher education degree. He is charged under Article 319 of the Russian Criminal Code (‘Insult of a representative of the authority'), Article 354.1, Part 3 (‘Rehabilitation of Nazism'), Article 282, Part 1 (‘Incitement of hatred or hostility'). He has been held under house arrest since 5 July 2021.
  2. Aramyan, Armen Vardanovich, was born on 8 July 1997. A resident of Moscow Oblast, he is an editor of the DOXA student media. He is charged under Article 151.2, Part 2, points ‘a', 'b", and ‘v', of the Russian Criminal Code (‘Involving minors in commission of acts endangering the lives of minors on the Internet') for posting a video in solidarity with opposition-minded schoolchildren and students before protests in support of Aleksei Navalny. Since 14 April 2021 he has been under a ban on certain activities that in fact amounts to house arrest.
  3. Atamanov, Aleksandr Sergeyevich, was born on 2 October 1989. A resident of the city of Pyatigorsk, he is married with an underage child. At the time of his arrest, he worked as a freight handler and a taxi driver. He was sentenced to 4 years and 10 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 282.2, Part 1.1 (‘Recruiting others to take part in the activities of an extremist organisation') of the Russian Criminal Code for allegedly recruiting for the Ukrainian nationalist organisation ‘Right Sector' (‘Pravy Sektor') banned in Russia, and under Article 228, Part 2 (‘Illegal acquisition, storage and transportation of narcotic substances on a large scale without the purpose of selling'). He was detained on 21 March 2019 and has been held in custody since 25 March 2019.
  4. Barakhoyev, Akhmed Osmanovich, was born on 19 April 1954. A resident of the village of Novy Redant in the Malgobek district of the Ingush republic, he is a member of the Ingush Committee of the National Unity and a member of the Council of the Teips (clans) of the Ingush People. He has a higher education degree. He is a pensioner. He was charged with committing a crime under Article 33, Part 3, in conjunction with Article 318, Part 2 (‘Organising acts of violence endangering life or health of public officials') and Article 282.1, Part 1 (‘Organisation of the activities of an extremist association') of the Russian Criminal Code after the clashes of protesters with police in Magas on 27 March 2019. He has been held in custody since 3 April 2019.
  5. Bendas, Olga Valeryevna, was born 21 December 1985. A resident of the city of Lyubertsy, she worked as a furniture designer. As a defendant in the 'Palace Case', she was sentenced to 2 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 318, Part 1 (‘Use of violence, not dangerous to life or health, against a public official in connection with the performance of their duties') of the Russian Criminal Code. She has been held in custody since 28 January 2021.
  6. Bessarabov, Oleksii Yevhenovych, was born on 5 December 1976. A resident of the city of Sevastopol in Crimea, he holds the citizenships of Russia and Ukraine. He holds higher education degrees from the Nakhimov Naval Institute in Sevastopol and the Faculty of Journalism of the Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. He served at the intelligence centre of the Ukrainian Navy and worked as an expert at the Ukrainian NGO Nomos, centre for assistance to the research of geopolitical problems and Euro-Atlantic cooperation in the Black Sea region. After the Russian annexation of Crimea in 2014, he became an entrepreneur. He is married with a child. As a defendant in the case of ‘Sevastopol saboteurs', he was sentenced under Article 30, Part 1, in conjunction with Article 281, Part 2, Point ‘a' (‘Preparation to an act of sabotage, committed as part of an organised group') and Article 222.1, Part 3 (‘Illegal acquisition and storage of explosives, committed by an organised group') of the Russian Criminal Code to 14 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony and a fine of 300 000 roubles. He has been held in custody since 9 November 2016.
  7. Borovikov, Andrei Vladimirovich, was born on 15 May 1988. A resident of the city of Arkhangelsk, he is an environmental activist and a coordinator of Aleksei Navalny's local headquarters. He was sentenced to 2 years and 6 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 242, Part 3, Point 'b' of the Russian Criminal Code ('Illegal trafficking of pornographic materials on the Internet') for posting on his social media page a music video on Rammstein's song Pussy. He has been held in custody since 29 April 2021.
  8. Boyarshinov, Yuly (Yulian) Nikolayevich, was born on 10 July 1991. A resident of the city of Saint Petersburg, he is a left-wing antifascist activist. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a steeplejack. He was sentenced to 5 years and 6 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 222.1, Part 1 (‘Illegal storage of explosives') and Article 205.4, Part 2 (‘Pa rticipatio n in a terrorist association') of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Set case, an organisation declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group. He has been held in custody since 21 January 2018.
  9. Chemurziev, Barakh Akhmetovich, was born on 17 May 1969. A resident of the village of Troitskaya of the Sunzha district of the Republic of Ingushetia, he is the chair of the Opora Ingushetii movement (The Mainstay of Ingushetia), a member of the Ingush Committee of the National Unity, and a member of the Presidium of the World Congress of the Ingush People. He is married with three children, one of them being disabled. He was charged with committing a crime under Article 33, Part 3, in conjunction with Article 318, Part 2 (‘Organising acts of violence endangering life or health of public officials') and Article 282.1, Part 2 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist association') of the Russian Criminal Code after the clashes of protesters with police in Magas on 27 March 2019. He has been held in custody since 3 April 2019.
  10. Chernov, Andrei Sergeyevich, was born on 18 March 1989. A resident of the city of Penza, he is an antifascist activist of left-wing persuasion. Prior to his arrest, he worked as an assembler at a plant and studied at the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of the Penza Pedagogical University. He was sentenced to 14 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony under Article 205.4, Part 2 (‘Participation in a terrorist association') and Article 30, Part 3, in conjunction with Article 228.1, Part 4, Point ‘g' (‘Attempt to commit large-scale illegal dealing in drugs') of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Set case, an organisation declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group. He has been held in custody since 9 November 2017.
  11. Dilmukhametov, Airat Akhnafovich, was born on 21 June 1966. A resident of the city of Ufa in the Republic of Bashkortostan, he is an opposition activist and an active member of the Bashir nationalist movement. He was sentenced to 9 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony under Article 280.1, Part 2 (‘Public appeals to actions aimed at violation of the territorial integrity of the Russian Federation'), Article 205.2, Part 2 (‘Public appeals to terrorist activities, public justification of terrorist activities, or terrorist propaganda using the Internet'), Article 280, Part 1 (‘Public appeals to extremist activities') and Article 282.3, Part 1 (‘Fundraising for extremist activities') of the Russian Criminal Code. He has been held in custody since 14 March 2019.
  12. Dmitriev, Oleg Sergeyevich, was born on 7 June 1979. A resident of the city of Almetievsk in the Republic of Tatarstan, he was employed as a construction worker. He was sentenced to 8 years of imprisonment in a strict- regime penal colony followed with 1 year of restricted freedom under Article 30, Part 1, in conjunction with Article 205, Part 2, Point ‘a' (‘Preparation to a terrorist act committed by a group of people by preliminary agreement') of the Russian Criminal Code as a supporter of the Russian nationalist leader Vyacheslav Maltsev. He has been held in custody since 2 November 2017.
  13. Dmitriev, Yuri Alekseyevich, was born on 28 January 1956. A resident of the city of Pertozavodsk in the Republic of Karelia, he is a historian, researcher of the mass graves of victims of political repression, the head of the Karelia branch of the Memorial Society, a member of the Commission for restoring the rights of rehabilitated victims of political repressions under the Government of the Republic of Karelia. Initially he was charged under Article 242.2, Part 2, Point ‘v' (‘Use of a minor for the purposes of production of pornographic materials'), Article 135, Part 3 (‘Perverted acts without the use of force against a minor'), and Article 222, Part 1 (‘Illegal storage of main components of firearms') of the Russian Criminal Code. Mr Dmitriev was acquitted of child pornography charges and was sentenced to 2 years and 6 months of restricted freedom for the illegal storage of firearms components but the Supreme Court of the Republic of Karelia reversed the verdict and sent the case for re-examination. Later Mr Dmitriev was charged under Article 132, Part 4, Point ‘b' (‘Violent actions of sexual character against a minor'). On 22 July 2020, he was acquitted of the charges related to perverted acts, child pornography and illegal firearms storage and was sentenced to 3 years and 6 months of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony for violent actions of sexual character against a minor. On 29 September 2020, the Supreme Court of the Republic of Karelia delivered a new verdict regarding the charges of violent actions of sexual character against a minor and sentenced Dmitriev to 13 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony. Beside this, it sent the case related to the charges of perverted acts, child pornography, and illegal firearms storage for re-examination. Dmitriev was held in custody from 13 December 2016 to 27 January 2018 when he was released under a written undertaking not to leave the place. On 27 June 2018, Mr Dmitriev was taken into custody once again.
  14. Domnin, Vladimir Aleksandrovich, (Afanasiev, Andrei Aleksandrovich, before he changed his name in 2018) was born 7 December 1966. A resident of the city of Moscow, he is a businessman. He is an activist of nationalist persuasions. He has three underage children. He was sentenced to 9 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony Article 208, Part 2 (‘Participation in an illegal armed formation' ), Article 222, Part 1 (Illegal storage of firearms and ammunition'), Article 282.2, Part 2 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist organisation') of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with his alleged membership of the ‘Pravy Sektor' banned in Russia, and his stay in the zone of the armed conflict in the East of Ukraine. Formally he has been in custody since 6 July 2018, in fact he has been deprived of freedom since 28 June 2018.
  15. Dudka, Volodymyr Mykhailovych, was born on 20 September 1964. A resident of the city of Sevastopol in Crimea, he holds the citizenships of Russia and Ukraine. He graduated from the Faculty of Radio Intelligence of the Kaliningrad Naval Academy and served as an officer in the Ukrainian Navy. From 2011 to the Russian annexation of Crimea in 2014, he worked as a field engineer tasked with demining of the former WWII battlegrounds at the Ukrainian Ministry of Emergency Situations, later on - at the same position at the Russian Ministry of Emergency Situations. He is divorced. As a defendant in the case of ‘Sevastopol saboteurs', he was sentenced under Article 30, Part 1, in conjunction with Article 281, Part 2, Point ‘a' (‘Preparation to an act of sabotage, committed as part of an organised group') and Article 222.1, Part 3 (‘Illegal acquisition and storage of explosives, committed by an organised group') of the Russian Criminal Code to 14 years of imprisonment in a strict- regime penal colony and a fine of 350 000 roubles. He has been held in custody since 9 November 2016.
  16. Dzhumayev, Said-Mukhamad Said-Akhmadovich, (Markhiev, Mikail Mikhailovich, after he changed his name in 2021) was born on 15 January 2000. A resident of the city of Moscow, he was a student of the Moscow State university. A defendant in the ‘Palace Case', he was sentenced to 5 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 318, Part 1, of the Russian Criminal Code (‘Use of violence, not dangerous to life or health, against a public official in connection with the performance of their duties'). He has been deprived of freedom since his detention on 28 January 2021.
  17. Federyakov, Aleksandr Sergeyevich, was born on 13 November 1984, a resident of the city of Moscow. He is married with two underage children. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a team lead in an IT company. A defendant in the ‘Palace Case', he was sentenced to 1 year and 6 months in a general­regime penal colony under Article 318, Part 1 of the Russian Criminal Code (‘Use of violence, not dangerous to life or health, against a public official in connection with the performance of their duties'). Mr Fede rya kov has been held in custody since 31 March 2021.
  18. Filinkov, Viktor Sergeyevich, was born on 10 July 1991. A resident of the city of Saint Petersburg, he holds the Kazakhstani nationality. He is a left-wing antifascist activist. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a programmer. He was sentenced to 7 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 205.4, Part 2 (‘Participation in a terrorist association') of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Set case, an organisation declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group. He has been held in custody since 23 January 2018.
  19. Gabyshev, Aleksandr Prokopievich, was born on 22 November 1968. A resident of the city of Yakutsk, he is a hereditary shaman. He is suspected of committing crimes under Article 280, Part 1 (‘Public appeals for extremist activities') and Article 318, Part 2 ('Use of violence endangering life or health of public officials''). He was forcibly hospitalised in a psychiatric hospital from 12 May to 22 July 2020 when he was released. On 27 January 2021, he was once again forcibly admitted into the psychiatric facility.
  20. Gadzhiev, Abdulmumin Khabibovich, was born on 18 June 1984. A resident of the city of Makhachkala in the Republic of Dagestan, he works as the editor of the department of religion of the Dagestani Chernovik newspaper (The Draft). He is married with four children. He was charged under Article 205.5, Part 2 (‘Participation in the activities of a terrorist organisation'), Article 205.1, Part 4 (‘Financing terrorist activities'), and Article 282.2, Part 2 (‘Participation in the activities of a extremist organisation') of the Russian Criminal Code as an alleged member of the Islamic State in connection with an interview with an Islamic preacher. He has been held in custody since 14 June 2019.
  21. Grin-Romanov, Pavel Sergeyevich, was born on 7 July 1997, a citizen of the unrecognised Luhansk People's Republic and Russia. A computer administrator based in Moscow, he took part in the January 2021 rally in support of Aleksei Navalny. He was sentenced to 3 years in a general-regime penal colony under Article 318, Part 2, of the Russian Criminal Code (‘Use of violence dangerous to life or health against a public official in connection with their performance of official duties'). Mr Grin-Romanov has been held in custody since 2 February 2021.
  22. Gutnikova, Alla Mikhailovna, was born on 25 April 1998. A resident of the city of Moscow, she is a student at the Higher School of Economics and an editor of the DOXA student media. She was charged under Article 151.2, Part 2, Points ‘a', 'b', and ‘v', of the Russian Criminal Code (‘Involving minors in commission of acts endangering the lives of minors on the Internet') for posting a video in solidarity with opposition-minded schoolchildren and students before protests in support of Aleksei Navalny. Since 14 April 2021 she has been under a ban on certain activities that in fact amounts to house arrest.
  23. Isayev, Ismail Saiputyevich, was born on 17 March 2003 and is a brother of Salekh Magamadov. Grozny natives, they were discussion moderators in an opposition Telegram channel, through which they criticised the Chechen authorities. After leaving Chechnya, they were detained in Nizhny Novgorod as they were charged under Article 33, Part 5, in conjunction with Article 208, Part 2 of the Russian Criminal Code (‘Aiding and abetting participation in an illegal armed group'). The brothers have been held in custody since 4 February 2021.
  24. Ivankin, Maksim Sergeyevich, was born on 28 December 1994. A resident of the city of Penza, he is an antifascist activist of left-wing persuasion. He was sentenced to 13 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony under Article 30, Part 3, in conjunction with Article 228.1, Part 4, Point ‘g' (‘Attempt to commit large-scale illegal dealing in drugs') and Article 205.4, Part 2 (‘Participation in a terrorist association') of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Set case, an organisation declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group. He was detained on 4 July 2018 and taken into custody on the following day.
  25. Ivanov, Igor Romanovich, was born on 17 June 1996. An opposition activist of Russian nationalist persuasion from Kaliningrad. He was sentenced to 6 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 282.1, Part 2 (‘Participation in an extremist community'), Article 280, Part 1 (‘Public appeals for extremist activities'), Article 205.2, Part 1 (‘Public appeals for terrorist activities') of the Russian Criminal Code as a member of ‘B.A.R.S.' (the Baltic Vanguard of the Russian Resistance). Mr Ivanov has been held in custody since 27 May 2017.
  26. Ivanov, Oleg Aleksandrovich, was born on 29 June 1977. A resident of the city of Almetievsk in the Republic of Tatarstan, he was employed as an electrician. He was sentenced to 7 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony followed with 1 year of restricted freedom under Article 30, Part 1, in conjunction with Article 205, Part 2, Point ‘a' (‘Preparation to a terrorist act committed by a group of people by preliminary agreement') of the Russian Criminal Code as a supporter of the Russian nationalist leader Vyacheslav Maltsev. He has been held in custody since 2 November 2017.
  27. Karamzin, Piotr Aleksandrovich, was born on 23 April 1979. A resident of the city of Moscow, he earned a higher education degree in jurisprudence. At the time of his arrest, he was not officially employed. He was sentenced to 6 years and 3 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 282.1, Part 1 (‘Organisation of the activities of an extremist association') and Article 282.1, Part 2 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist association') of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Novoye Velichiye case. Mr Karamzin has been held in custody since 15 March 2018.
  28. Kazimirau, Andrei Syarheyevich, was born on 6 September 1999. A Belarusian national, he is a resident of the city of Brest in Belarus. On 14 January 2021 he was detained in Moscow as he was charged under Article 293, Part 2, of the Belarusian Criminal Code ('Taking part in riots'). He has been waiting to be deported in the pre-trial detention centre.
  29. Khalimov, Aitakhadzhi Visarkhadzhievich, was born on 9 February 1993. An ethnic Chechen, he holds the Kazakhstani nationality. At the moment of his arrest, he was in Kaliningrad where he came looking for a job. He completed secondary specialised education. He is married with an underage child. He was sentenced to 3 years and 6 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 205.2, Part 2 (‘Public incitement for terrorist activities, public justification of terrorism or propaganda of terrorism') for posting videos on the Chechen war on his own account on the Russian social media network Vkontakte. He has been held in custody since 24 December 2019.
  30. Khautiev, Bagaudin Adamovich, was born on 19 July 1990. A resident of the city of Nazran in the Republic of Ingushetia, he is the head of the Council of Youth Organisations of Ingushetia and a member of the Ingush Committee of the National Unity. He has a higher education degree. He is married with four children. He was charged with committing a crime under Article 33, Part 3, in conjunction with Article 318, Part 2 (‘Organising acts of violence endangering life or health of public officials') of the Russian Criminal Code and Article 282.1, Part 2 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist association') of the Russian Criminal Code after the clashes of protesters with police in Magas on 27 March 2019. He has been held in custody since 3 April 2019.
  31. Kolomiyets, Andrii Volodymyrovych,was born on 8 May 1993. While holding a permanent registration in the village of Viktorivka in Kiev Oblast of Ukraine, he was also temporarily registered in the village of Yantarny of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic of the Russian Federation. He was sentenced to 10 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime colony under Article 30, Part 3, in conjunction with of Article 105, Part 2, Points ‘a', ‘b', ‘e', ‘l' (‘Attempted murder of two individuals in connection with their professional duties committed by generally dangerous means for reasons of political or ideological hatred') of the Russian Criminal Code and under Article 228, Part 2 (‘Illegal acquisition, storage and transportation of plants containing narcotic or psychotropic substances on a large scale without the purpose of selling') for his participation in the Euromaidan protests in Kiev in winter 2013 - 2014. Mr Kolomiyets has been held in custody since 15 May 2015.
  32. Kostylenkov, Ruslan Dmitrievich, was born on 15 March 1993. A resident of the town of Khotkovo in Moscow Oblast, he completed a specialised secondary education. At the time of his arrest, he was not officially employed. He was sentenced to 6 years and 9 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 282.1, Part 1 (‘Organisation of the activities of an extremist association') and Article 282.1, Part 2 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist association') of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Novoye Velichiye case. Mr Kostylenkov has been held in custody since 15 March 2018.
  33. Kryukov, Vyacheslav Vladislavovich, was born on 30 May 1998. A resident of Moscow, he was a third-year student of the Law Faculty of the Russian State University of Justice. He was sentenced to 6 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 282.1, Part 1 (‘Organisation of the activities of an extremist association') and Article 282.1, Part 2 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist association') of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Novoye Velichiye case. Mr Kryukov has been held in custody since 15 March 2018.
  34. Kudayev, Rasul Vladimirovich, was born on 23 January 1978. He resided in the village of Khasanya near the city of Nalchik of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic. He was sentenced to life imprisonment in a special-regime penal colony under Article 105, Points ‘a', ‘e', ‘zh' and ‘z' (‘Murder of two or more individuals by generally dangerous means by an organised group, out of mercenary interest related to banditry') of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, Article 166, Part 4 (‘Unlawful occupancy of transport vehicles without the intention to commit theft committed by an organised group with the use of force dangerous to life and health, and also with the threat of using such force'), Article 205, Part 3 (‘Terrorist act using firearms committed by an organised group resulting in dangerous consequences'), Article 209, Part 2 (Participation in a stable armed group with the aim of assaulting individuals or organisations, and in the assaults committed by it'), Article 210, Part 2 (‘Participation in a criminal group'), Article 222, Part 3 (‘Illegal acquisition, transfer, sale, storage, transportation, or bearing of firearms, its basic parts, ammunition, explosives, and explosive devices committed by an organised group'), Article 30, Part 2, and Article 226, Part 4, Points ‘a' and ‘b' (‘Attempt to steal firearms and ammunition committed by an organised group with the use of force dangerous to life and health, and also with the threat of using such force'), Article 226, Part 4, Points ‘a' and ‘b' (‘Theft of firearms and ammunition committed by an organised group with the use of force dangerous to life and health, and also with the threat of using such force'), Article 279 (‘Active participation in an armed mutiny aimed at a forcible change of the constitutional order or a violation of the territorial integrity of the Russian Federation'), and Article 317 (‘Attempt on the life of law enforcement officers or military service personnel') of the Russian Criminal Code for his alleged participation in the Nalchik attack on 13 October 2005. Mr Kudayev had been held in custody since 23 October 2005.
  35. Kuksov, Vasily Alekseyevich, was born on 21 May 1988. A resident of the city of Penza, he is an antifascist and animals' rights activist of left-wing persuasion. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a design engineer and played in a rock band. He was sentenced to 9 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 205.4, Part 2 (‘Participation in a terrorist association') and Article 222, Part 1 (‘Illegal storage of firearms and ammunition') of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Set case, an organisation declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group. He has been held in custody since 19 October 2017.
  36. Kulkov, Mikhail Alekseyevich, was born on 12 October 1994. A resident of the city of Penza, he is an antifascist activist of left-wing persuasion. He was sentenced to 10 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony under Article 30, Part 3, in conjunction with Article 228.1, Part 4, Point ‘g' (‘Attempt to commit large-scale illegal dealing in drugs') and Article 205.4, Part 2 (‘Participation in a terrorist association') of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Set case, an organisation declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group. He was detained on 4 July 2018 and taken into custody on the following day.
  37. Lavrov, Sergei Ivanovich, was born on 28 August 1991. A resident of the city of Kursk, he completed specialised secondary education. He is a left-wing civil activist. He was sentenced to 5 years of imprisonment in general-regime penal colony and compulsory psychiatric treatment under Article 205.2, Part 2 (‘Public incitement for terrorist activities, public justification of terrorism or propaganda of terrorism') for posts on social media. He was under house arrest from 5 June 2019 to 29 May 2020 when he was taken into custody.
  38. Lesnykh, Yegor Sergeyevich, was born on 8 November 1984. A resident of the city of Moscow, he is a blood donor, animal rights and anti-poverty ac­tivist. He completed a secondary specialised education. Prior to his arrest, he was a self-employed in the sphere of construction. He was sentenced to 3 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 318, Part 1 (‘Use of force against a public official') of the Russian Criminal Code as a protester who took part in the manifestation in central Moscow on 27 July 2019. He has been held in custody since 14 October 2019.
  39. Lyubshin, Ivan Viktorovich, was born on 29 December 1982. A resident of the city of Kaluga, he worked as a sales assistant. He was sentenced to 5 years and 2 months of imprisonment in a general regime penal colony under Article 205.2, Part 2 of the Russian Criminal Code (‘Public appeals to terrorist activ­ities, public justification of terrorist activities, or terrorist propaganda using the Internet'). He was detained on 15 October 2019, from 17 October to 25 December 2019 he was under house arrest, when he was released under the written undertaking not to leave the place. He was taken into custody on 5 March 2020.
  40. Magamadov, Salekh Saipudinovich, was born on 26 January 2001 and is a brother of Ismail Isayev. Grozny natives, they were discussion moderators in an opposition Telegram channel, through which they criticised the Chechen authorities. After leaving Chechnya, they were detained in Nizhny Novgorod as they were charged under Article 33, Part 5, in conjunction with Article 208, Part 2 of the Russian Criminal Code (‘Aiding and abetting participation in an illegal armed group'). The brothers have been held in custody since 4 February 2021.
  41. Maisigov, Rashid Aslanovich, was born on 24 October 1987. A resident of the city of Nazran in the Republic of Ingushetia, he was a contributor to the local independent media Fortanga.ORG. He was sentenced to 3 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 228, Part 2 ('Illegal storage of drugs on a large scale'). He was in custody from 12 July to 19 November 2019 when he was placed under house arrest. On 16 September 2020, he was once again taken into custody.
  42. Malsagov, Musa Aslanovich, was born on 8 March 1972. A resident of the city of Nazran in the Republic of Ingushetia, he is a co-chair of the World Congress of the Ingush People, the chair of the Ingushetia branch of the Russian Red Cross, and a former member of the National Assembly of the Republic of Ingushetia from the United Russia party. He holds a higher edu­cation degree. He is married with four underage children. He was charged with committing a crime under Article 33, Part 3, in conjunction with Article 318, Part 2 (‘Organising acts of violence endangering life or health of public officials') after the clashes of protesters with police in Magas on 27 March 2019. He has been held in custody since 3 April 2019.
  43. Malyshevsky, Eduard Vadimovich, was born on 23 March 1972. A resident of the city of Khimki in Moscow Oblast, he is a refurbishment specialist. He sentenced to 2 years and 9 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 318, Part 1 (‘Use of force against a public official') of the Russian Criminal Code as a protester who took part in the manifestation in central Moscow on 27 July 2019. He has been held in custody since 30 August 2019.
  44. Mamayev, Aleksandr Arkadievich (Father Nikolay), was born on 24 December 1960. A resident of the city of Kaliningrad. A priest of the Russian Orthodox Church, alternative to the Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate. He was sentenced to 6 years of imprisonment in a general-re­gime penal colony under Article 282.1, Part 2 (‘Participation in an extremist community'), Article 280, Part 1 (‘Public appeals for extremist activities'), Article 205.2, Part 1 (‘Public appeals for terrorist activities') of the Russian Criminal Code as a member of ‘B.A.R.S.' (the Baltic Vanguard of the Russian Resistance). Mr Mamayev has been held in custody since 27 May 2017.
  45. Marchenko, Oleksandr Volodymyrovych, was born on 11 October 1971. A Ukrainian national, he is a resident of the Ukrainian city of Dnipro. He was sentenced to 10 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony under Article 276 (‘Espionage') of the Russian Criminal Code. He has been held in custody since 18 February2019.
  46. Martintsov, Maksim Alekseyevich, was born on 7 October 1993. A resident of the city of Moscow, he completed a secondary specialised education and worked as a laboratory engineer at a construction company. He was sen­tenced to 2 years and 6 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 318, Part 1 (‘Use of force against a public official') of the Russian Criminal Code as a protester who took part in the manifestation in central Moscow on 27 July 2019. He has been held in custody since 14 October 2019.
  47. Maryasov, Gleb Yevgenyevich, was born on 8 July 2000. A resident of the city of Krasnoyarsk, he is a student of the Siberian Federal University and the secretary of the Krasnoyarsk branch of the unregistered Libertarian Party of Russia. He sentenced to 10 months in a general-regime penal colony under Article 267, Part 1 ('Intentional blocking of transport communications and transport infrastructure or hindering the movement of vehicles and pedestrians on railways and road networks where these acts endanger the life, health or safety of citizens or threaten to destroy or damage the property of individuals or legal entities') of the Russian Criminal Code. From 24 February to 27 October 2021, he was under a ban on certain activities. On 27 October 2021, he was taken into custody.
  48. Metyolkin, Vladimir Aleksandrovich, was born on 17 December 1994. A resident of the city of Moscow, he is a student at the Moscow Pedagogical State University and an editor of the DOXA student media. He was charged under Article 151.2, Part 2, Points ‘a', 'b', and ‘v', of the Russian Criminal Code (‘Involving minors in commission of acts endangering the lives of minors on the Internet') for posting a video in solidarity with opposition-minded schoolchildren and students before protests in support of Aleksei Navalny. He was also charged under Article 289.1, Part 2, ('Slander against an investigator in connection to the conduct of a preliminary investigation') of the Russian Criminal Code. Since 14 April 2021 he has been under a ban on certain activities that in fact amounts to house arrest.
  49. Miftakhov, Azat Fanisovich, was born on 22 March 1993. A resident of the city of Moscow, he is a PhD student at the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics of the Moscow State University. He is a person of Anarchist persuasion. The security services claim that Mr. Miftakhov is an active member of the libertarian political movement of Narodnaya Samooborona (The People's Self-Defense). He was sentenced to 6 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 213, Part 2 (‘Hooliganism committed by a group of people by preliminary agreement') for his alleged participation in an attack against a United Russia party office in Moscow. On 12 February 2019, he was taken into custody in connection with the alleged hooliganism case, being actually deprived of freedom since 1 February 2019.
  50. Nalgiev, Ismail Makhmudovich, was born on 23 October 1991. A resident of the Republic of Ingushetia, he is the head of the regional NGO Vybor Ingushetii (The Choice of Ingushetia), a member of the Ingush Committee of the National Unity. He was charged with committing a crime under Article 33, Part 3, in conjunction with Article 318, Part 2 (‘Organising acts of violence endangering life or health of public officials') and Article 282.1, Part 2 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist association') of the Russian Criminal Code after the clashes of protesters with police in Magas on 27 March 2019. He has been held in custody since 8 May 2019.
  51. Navalny, Aleksei Anatolievich, was born on 4 June 1976. A resident of the city of Moscow, he is one of Russian opposition leaders. In a case under Article 33, Part 3 in conjunction with Article 160, Part 4 ('Organisation of embezzlement committed by an organised group on an especially large scale') and in another case under Article 159, Part 3 ('Fraud on a large scale'), Article 159.4, Part 3 ('Fraud in business activities on an especially large scale'), and Article 174.1, Part 2, Point «a» ('Laundering of monetary funds, acquired as a result of having committed an offence, on a large scale') of the Russian Criminal Code, he was given a suspended sentence of 3 years and 6 months of imprisonment with a 5-year probation period and a fine of 500,000 roubles. On 17 January 2021, Navalny was detained on his return to Russia from Germany, where he had been recovering from poisoning. On 2 February 2021, the suspended sentence was replaced with 2 years and 8 months in a general-regime penal colony.
  52.  Orshulevich, Aleksandr Vladimirovich, was born on 26 November 1987. A resident of city of Kaliningrad. He is an opposition activist of Russian nationalist persuasion. He was sentenced to 8 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 282.1, Part 1 (‘Organisation of the activities of an extremist community'), Article 280, Part 1 (‘Public appeals for extremist activities'), Article 205.2, Part 1 (‘Public appeals for terrorist activities') of the Russian Criminal Code as a member of ‘B.A.R.S.' (the Baltic Vanguard of the Russian Resistance). Mr Orshulevich has been held in custody since 27 May 2017.
  53. Ozerov, Sergei Ivanovich, was born on 6 April 1972. A resident of the town of Arzamas in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, he was employed as an industrial worker. He was sentenced to 8 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony followed with 1 year of restricted freedom under Article 30, Part 1, in conjunction with Article 205, Part 2, Point ‘a' (‘Preparation to a terrorist act committed by a group of people by preliminary agreement') of the Russian Criminal Code as a supporter of the Russian nationalist leader Vyacheslav Maltsev. He has been held in custody since 2 November 2017.
  54. Parpulov, Piotr Ivanovich, was born on 8 July 1955. A resident of the city of Sochi. From the 1980s to his detention in 2014, he worked as an air traffic control officer at the civilian airport in Sochi although he had already reached pensionable age. He was sentenced to 12 years in a strict-regime penal colony under Article 275 (‘High treason') of the Russian Criminal Code for divulging unidentified classified information that was nonetheless published in the newspaper ‘Krasnaya Zvezda' (‘Red Star') and therefore available to the general public. Mr Parpulov has been in custody since 4 March 2014.
  55. Pchelintsev, Dmitry Dmitrievich, was born on 14 May 1992. A resident of the city of Penza, he is an antifascist activist of left-wing persuasion. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a shooting instructor at the veteran organisation of the Union of Paratroopers of Russia. He was sentenced to 18 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony followed with 1 year and 6 months of restricted freedom under Article 205.4, Part 1 (‘Organisation of a terrorist association') and Article 222, Part 1 (‘Illegal storage of firearms and ammunition') of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Set case, an organisation declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group. He has been held in custody since 27 October 2017.
  56. Pershin, Ilya Aleksandrovich, was born on 17 June 1994. A resident of the city of Saint-Petersburg and an amateur artist, prior to his arrest, he worked as a reception manager. He was sentenced to 3 years in a penal settlement colony under Article 318, Part 1 (‘Use of violence, not dangerous to life or health, against a public official in connection with the performance of their duties'), of the Russian Criminal Code. Mr Pershin has been held in custody since 17 February 2021.
  57. Pichugin, Aleksei Vladimirovich, was born on 25 July 1962. A resident of the city of Moscow. He is a former head of the department for internal economic security for the Yukos oil company. Two guilty verdicts were delivered against him as a defendant in the Yukos case, in 2005 and 2007, under Article 162 (‘Robbery') of the Russian Criminal Code and Article 105 (‘Murder'). He was sentenced to life imprisonment in a special-regime penal colony. Mr Pichugin has been in custody since 19 June 2003.
  58. Pichuzhin, Roman Dmitrievich, was born on 27 January 1977. A resident of the city of Moscow, he is a heating engineer. He had also acted as an election observer, was a member of a district election commission and, in 2017, was a candidate in the municipal elections in his home district of North Tushino. As a defendant in the 'Place Case', he was sentenced to 2 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 318, Part 1 (‘Use of force against a public official') of the Russian Criminal Code. He has been held in custody since 3 March 2021.
  59. Pivovarov, Andrei Sergeyevich, was born on 23 September 1981. He is one of the leaders of the Russian democratic opposition, former director of the Open Russia non-profit, which he led until it disbanded on 27 May 2021. He was charged under Article 284.1 of the Russian Criminal Code (‘Collaboration with an undesirable organisation'). Mr Pivovarov was detained on 31 May 2021 and then put in custody on 2 June 2021.
  60. Pogorov, Akhmed Sarazhudinovich, was born in 1963. A resident of the Republic of Ingushetia, he is a co-president of the Ingush National Congress and a former Interior Minister of Ingushetia. He was charged under Article 33, Part 3, in conjunction with Article 318, Part 2 (‘Organising acts of violence endangering life or health of public officials') and Article 282.1, Part 2 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist association') of the Russian Criminal Code after the clashes of protesters with police in Magas on 27 March 2019. He was arrested on 26 February 2021. On 26 May 2021 he was released under house arrest, but on 27 May 2021 he was arrested once again.
  61. Polyudova, Daria Vladimirovna, was born on 4 February 1989. A resident of the city of Moscow, she is the leader of the Left Resistance opposition movement. She was sentenced to 6 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 205.2, Part 1 (‘Public justification of terrorism') and Article 205.2, Part 2 (‘Public justification of terrorism using the Internet'). She has been held in custody since 15 January 2020.
  62. Prykhodko, Oleh Arkadiyovych, was born on 21 November 1958. A resident of the town of Saki in Crimea, he completed secondary education. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a blacksmith. He is a pro-Ukrainian activist of nationalist persuasion. He was sentenced to 5 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony with 1 year of imprisonment in a special prison facility and to a fine of 110,000 roubles under Article 30, Part 1 in conjunction with Article 205, Part 1 ('Preparation of a terrorist act'), Article 223.1, Part 1 ('Illegal fabrication of an explosive device'), Article 30, Part 3 in conjunction with Article 223.1, Part 1 ('Attempted illegal fabrication of an explosive device'), and Article 222.1, Part 1 (‘Illegal acquisition and storage of explosives and of explosive devices') of the Russian Criminal Code. He has been held in custody since 10 October 2019.
  63. Rebrovsky, Pavel Viktorovich, was born on 17 November 1986. A resident of the city of Moscow, he completed a specialised secondary education. At the time of his arrest, he was not officially employed. He was sentenced to 6 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Part One of Article 282.1 (‘Organisation of the activities of an extremist organization') of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Novoye Velichiye case. Mr Rebrovsky was under house arrest from 15 March 2018 to March 2019 when he was released under a written undertaking not to leave the place. He was in custody from 29 April 2019 to 8 October 2019 when he was released under a written undertaking not to leave the place once again. On 29 October 2020 he was taken into custody.
  64. Sagynbayev, Arman Dauletovich, was born on 9 June 1992. A self-employed from Saint Petersburg, he is of antifascist persuasion and was in contact with antifascists from Penza, his official place of residence. He was sentenced to 6 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 205.4, Part 2 (‘Participation in a terrorist association') of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Set case, an organisation declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group. He has been held in custody since 6 November 2017.
  65. Sautieva, Zarifa Mukharbekovna, was born on 1 May 1978. A resident of the town of Sunzha in the Republic of Ingushetia, she is a member of the Ingush Committee of the National Unity. She holds a higher education degree. She a former deputy director of the Memorial Museum of the Victims of Repressions in Ingushetia. She was charged with committing a crime under Article 33, Part 3, in conjunction with Article 318, Part 2 (‘Organising acts of violence endangering life or health of public officials') and Article 282.1, Part 2 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist association') of the Russian Criminal Code after the clashes of protesters with police in Magas on 27 March 2019. She has been held in custody since 12 July 2019.
  66. Shakursky, Ilya Aleksandrovich, was born on 10 April 1996. A resident of the city of Penza, he is an antifascist activist of left-wing persuasion. Prior to his arrest, he studied at the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of the Penza Pedagogical University. He was sentenced to 16 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony followed with 1 year and 6 months of restricted freedom under Article 205.4, Part 1 (‘Organisation of a terrorist association') and Article 222, Part 1 (‘Illegal storage of firearms and ammunition') and Article 222.1, Part 1 (‘Illegal storage of explosives') of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Set case, an organisation declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group. He has been held in custody since 27 October 2017.
  67. Shestun, Aleksandr Vyacheslavovich, was born on 26 October 1964. A resident of the town of Serpukhov in Moscow Oblast, he was the head of Serpukhov municipal district and a member of the Yedinaya Rossiya (United Russia) party. He is married with five children. He was sentenced to 15 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony and a fine of 49 595 620 roubles under Article 159, Part 4 ('Fraud'), Article 174.1, Part 4, Point ‘b' ('Legalisation of illegally obtained property'), Article 289 ('Illegal participation in entrepreneurial activities'), and Article 290, Part 6 ('Receiving bribes on a specially large scale') of the Russian Criminal Code. He has been in custody since 13 June 2018.
  68. Sinitsa, Vladislav Yurievich (alias Max Steklov), was born on 17 June 1989. A resident of the city of Lyubertsy in Moscow Oblast, he holds a higher education degree. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a manager. He was sentenced under Article 282, Part 2, Point 'a' (‘Actions aimed at inciting hatred and enmity towards a social group committed publicly using the Internet, with a threat of violence') to 5 years of imprisonment in general-regime penal colony. He has been held in custody since 3 August 2019.
  69. Smyshlyayev, Maksim Nikolayevich, was born on 22 December 1982. He is a resident of the city of Rostov-on-Don of left persuasions. At the time of his arrest, he worked at a McDonald's outlet and studied extramurally at the Institute of History and International Relations of the Southern Federal University. He was sentenced to 10 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony under Article 205.1, Part 3 (‘Complicity in the preparation of a terrorist act') of the Russian Criminal Code for having allegedly aided a minor holding the citizenship of Ukraine in the preparation of a terrorist act that did not take place. Mr Smyshlyayev has been held in custody since 22 April 2016.
  70. Surovtsev, Sergei Yurievich, was born on 30 September 1989. A resident of the city of Moscow, he is a programmer and an IT-businessman. He was sentenced to 2 years and 6 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under under Article 318, Part 1 (‘Use of force against a public official') of the Russian Criminal Code as a protester who took part in the manifestation in central Moscow on 27 July 2019. He has been held in custody since 28 November 2019.
  71. Tepsurkayev, Salman Shirvanievich, was born on 1 August 2001. A resident of the city of Gelendzhik in Krasnodarsky Krai, he was a moderator of the oppositionist Telegram channel 1ADAT that reported on human rights vio­lations in Chechnya. After his abduction on 6 September 2020 he was taken to Chechnya where he was forcibly detained and subjected to degrading treatment. We believe the security agencies of the Chechen Republic were involved in the abduction and subsequent imprisonment of Salman Tepsurkayev.
  72. Tsurkan, Karina Valerievna, was born on 6 October 1974. Up to 2007, she resided in Moldova, later she moved to Moscow, Russia. At the time of her arrest, she worked as one the top managers of the Russian energy company Inter RAO. She was sentenced to 15 years of imprisonment in a general-re­gime penal colony under Article 276 (‘Espionage') of the Russian Criminal Code for her alleged transferring of economic data on the separatist entities in Eastern Ukraine. She has been held in custody since 14 June 2018.
  73. Tyshkevich, Natalia Borisovna, was born on 13 March 1994. A resident of the city of Moscow, she works at the archives of the Tryokhgornaya Manufaktura and is an editor of the DOXA student media. She was charged under Article 151.2, Part 2, Points ‘a', 'b', and ‘v', of the Russian Criminal Code (‘Involving minors in commission of acts endangering the lives of minors on the Internet') for posting a video in solidarity with opposition-minded schoolchildren and students before protests in support of Aleksei Navalny. Since 14 April 2021 she has been under a ban on certain activities that in fact amounts to house arrest.
  74. Uzhakhov, Malsag Musayevich, was born on 9 November 1952. A resident of the village of Barsuki of the Nazran district of the Republic of Ingushetia, he is the chair of the Council of the Teips (clans) of the Ingush People and a member of the Presidium of the World Congress of the Ingush People. He holds a higher education degree. He is married and is a pensioner. He was charged with committing a crime under Article 33, Part 3, in conjunction with Article 318, Part 2 (‘Organising acts of violence endangering life or health of public officials'), Part 2 of Article 239 (‘Presiding over an association inducing individuals to refuse to discharge their civil duties or to commit other unlawful deeds'), and Article 282.1, Part 1 (‘Organisation of the activities of an extremist association') of the Russian Criminal Code after the clashes of protesters with police in Magas on 27 March 2019. He has been held in custody since 19 April 2019.
  75. Yegorov, Vyacheslav Valeryevich, was born on 8 December 1977, is an environmental activist from the city of Kolomna, Moscow Oblast. He was sentenced to 1 year and 3 months in a penal colony under Article 212.1 of the Russian Criminal Code (‘Repeated violation of the regulations governing organisation or conduct of a public assembly, rally, demonstration, march or picket'). He was under house arrest from 2 February to 30 July 2019, when he was released under a ban on certain activities. On 26 December 2019 he was put under a written undertaking not to leave the place once again. On 14 October 2021, Mr Yegorov was taken into custody.
  76. Yevsin, Valery Aleksandrovich, was born on 6 November 1988. A resident of the Pskov Oblast, he is a businessman. he is married with two underage children. He was sentenced to 2 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 318, Part 1 of the Russian Criminal Code (‘Use of force against a public official') for taking part in the protests in solidarity with Aleksei Navalny in January 2021. He has been held in custody since 29 January 2021.
  77. Zagrebelny, Artyom Andreyevich, was born on 6 November 1993. A resi­dent of the city of Krasnoyarsk, he completed secondary education and is married. Prior to his arrest, he worked at the local tuberculosis clinic. He was sentenced to 3 years and 10 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 318, Part 2 ('Use of force, dangerous to life and health, against a public official') of the Russian Criminal Code for mistakenly pepper-spraying FSB officers who attacked him in the lift of the apartment building where he lived without showing their ID. He has been held in custody since 22 October 2020.
  78. Zelensky, Pavel Andresovich, was born on 10 January 1981. A resident of the city of Moscow, he is a cameraman at Aleksei Navalny's Anti-Corruption Foundation. He is married with three underage children. He was sentenced to 2 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 280, Part 2 ('Public appeals for an extremist activity committed using the Internet') for posting two tweets about the death of journalist Irina Slavina. He has been held in custody since 15 January 2021.
  79. Zhdanov, Yuri Pavlovich, was born on 13 October 1954, is a resident of the city of Aksay, Rostov Oblast, pensioner and father of Ivan Zhdanov who has been director of the Anti-Corruption Foundation since 2018 and a member of the board of the Russia of the Future party, both organisations founded by Aleksei Navalny's team. He is charged under Article 159, Part 4 (‘Large-scale fraud') and Article 292, Part 2, (‘Forgery') of the Russian Criminal Code. Mr Zhdanov has been held in custody since 26 March 2021.
  80. Zhukov, Kirill Sergeyevich, was born on 13 October 1990. He is a civil so­ciety activist. He was sentenced to 2 years and 6 months of imprisonment in a settlement penal colony under Article 318, Part 1 (‘Use of force against a public official') of the Russian Criminal Code as a protester who took part in the manifestation in central Moscow on 27 July 2019. He has been held in custody since 1 August 2019.