List of Individuals Recognized as Political Prisoners by the Memorial Human Rights Centre (with the Exception of Those Persecuted in connection with the Realization of their Right to Freedom of Religion) as of 14 June 2018

Дата публикации: 14.06.2018

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We consider political prisoners to be individuals who are serving a prison sentence, as well as those being held in custody or under house arrest as a form of pre-trial detention. We reckon among political prisoners individuals who are being persecuted in connection with the realization of their legitimate rights as well as those who are being unlawfully or disproportionately persecuted by the authorities for political reasons. We do not regard as political prisoners those individuals who used violence against the person or called for violence on the grounds of religion, nationality, race etc. All the criteria for considering individuals as political prisoners are published on our website.

There are 50 names in the present list. The names of those who are being persecuted mainly in connection with the realization of their right to freedom of religion can be found in a separate list. This list is far from being complete. It includes only those individuals and cases for which we have managed to collect and analyze sufficient information for a convincing conclusion to be drawn about a politically motivated and illegal nature of their criminal prosecution. Today, the list does not contain the names of a large number of people who have been deprived of liberty, and whose prosecution contains indications of illegality or political motivation, but for whose cases we have either not yet received the required information, or have not yet fully analyzed the information.

The political prisoners come from different groups persecuted by the State for political reasons. The ‘Ukrainian trail’ can be clearly traced in the cases of current or former Ukrainian citizens Ali Asanov, Mustafa Degermendzhi, Vladimir Balukh, Stanislav Klykh, Nikolai Karpyuk, Andrei Kolomiyets, Alexander Kostenko, Oleg Sentsov, Alexander Kolchenko, Sergei Litvinov, Vladimir Prysych, Alexander Shumkov, and Mykola Dadeu. The cases of Russian citizens Denis Bakholdin and Danis Safargali are also linked to the Russian authorities’ anti-Ukraine campaign.

Restriction of the right to assembly has remained one of the most important goals of politically motivated incarceration. Alexander Shpakov, Dmitri Krepkin, Alexei Politikov, and Stanislav Zimovets are still behind bars in connection with ’the 26 March case’. Arbitrary detentions of real and supposed supporters of the Russian opposition leader Vyacheslav Maltsev in November 2017 developed into several criminal cases: Roman Maryan from Krasnoyarsk and Vyacheslav Shatrovsky are among the first victims.

The Russian authorities have intensified a crackdown on freedom of expression and dissemination of information, particularly, in the Internet: Alexei Kungurov, Robert Zagreev, Vadim Tyumentsev, Valentin Sokolov, Dmitry Tretyakov, and Piotr Miloserdov were put behind bars for trying to exercise this right. The journalists Igor Rudnikov from Kaliningrad, well known for his high-profile investigations, and Zhelaudi Geriyev from Chechnya have been deprived of liberty on false grounds.

Criminal prosecution has also been used to restrict freedom of association. The initiative group for the holding of the referendum ‘For a responsible government’ was groundlessly labelled illegal and banned; its members Valery Parfyonov, Alexander Sokolov, and Kirill Barabash are still serving their terms in prison. Likewise, the members of the association of Kaliningrad regionalists of monarchist persuasion ‘B.A.R.S’ (the Baltic Vanguard of the Russian Resistance) Alexander Orshulevich, Igor Ivanov, Alexander Mamayev, and Nikolai Sentsov found themselves behind bars.

The Russian authorities at all levels have used unlawful criminal prosecution to suppress any undesirable civic activity. Alexander Eivazov who disclosed violations in the Russian judicial system is among their victims.

The high treason cases of Svyatoslav Bobyshev, Gennady Kravtsov, Petr Parpulov, and Vladimir Lapygin have helped propaganda to create the image of a Russia besieged by enemies.

The Chechen authorities have stepped up persecution of human rights defenders: Oyub Titiev, head of the Grozny office of Human Rights Centre Memorial, was arrested on absurd charges.

Dozens of different articles of the Russian Criminal Code have been utilized as tools of political repression. The most widely used articles are those related to extremism (incitement of hatred and enmity; public appeals for extremist activity; organization of the activities of an extremist organization), terrorism (terrorist act; complicity in terrorist activity and justification of such an activity, organization of a terrorist group), and maintaining law and order at public gatherings (mass riots; multiple violations of the established procedure for organising gatherings; use of force against a representative of the authority).

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  1. Asanov, Ali Akhmedovich, was born on 7 July 1982. A resident of the village of Urozhainoye in Crimea, he holds a higher education degree. He is married with four children. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a sales representative. He holds the Russian and Ukrainian citizenships. Mr Asanov was charged under Part Two of Article 212 (‘Participation in mass riots’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a defendant in the 26 February case opened after the clashes near the Supreme Council of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea on 26 February 2014. Mr Asanov was held in custody from 15 April 2015 to 6 April 2017 when he was placed under house arrest.
  1. Bagavutdinova, Zarema Ziyavtudinovna, was born on 18 September 1968. A resident of the town of Buinaksk in the Republic of Dagestan. As a member of the Dagestani NGO ‘Pravozashchita’, she criticised human rights violations committed by the law enforcement authorities during counter-terrorism operations. She was sentenced to 5 years in a general-regime colony on a charge of committing a crime under Part One of Article 205.1 (‘Incitement and other involvement of individuals in committing a crime envisaged under Article 208 of the Russian Criminal Code’) of the Russian Criminal Code. Ms Bagavutdinova has been held in custody since 4 June 2013.
  1. Bakholdin, Denis Igorevich, was born on 14 August 1981. A resident of the city of Moscow, in autumn 2014, he moved to Ukraine. An opposition activist, on many occasions he was charged with administrative offences for taking part in manifestations against the war with Ukraine and in support of political prisoners. Mr Bakholdin was charged with committing a crime under Part Two of Act 282.2 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist organization’) of the Russian Criminal Code for his alleged membership in the Ukrainian nationalist organization ‘Right Sector’ (‘Pravy Sektor’) during his stay in Ukraine. Mr Bakholdin has been held in custody since 9 March 2017.
  1. Balukh, Volodymyr Hryhorovych, was born on 8 February 1971. A resident of the village of Serebryanka of Razdolnensky district of Crimea. He is a farmer and a pro-Ukrainian activist who kept the Ukrainian nationality after 2014 and refused to accept the Russian passport. He opposes the Russian annexation of Crimea and speaks in favour of the territorial integrity of Ukraine. He was sentenced to 3 years and 7 months in a general-regime penal colony and a fine of 10,000 roubles under Part One of Article 222 (‘Illegal acquisition, transfer, sale, storage, transportation, or bearing of firearms, its basic parts, ammunition, explosives, and explosive devices’). On 29 August 2017, a new criminal case was opened against Vladimir Balukh for allegedly committing a crime envisaged under Part One of Article 318 (‘Use of force against a representative of the authority’) of the Russian Criminal Code; on 6 December 2017 these charges were dropped in favour of those under Part Two of Article 321 (‘Disorganisation of the activities of a temporary detention facility’) of the Russian Criminal Code. Mr. Balukh was held in custody from 8 December 2016 to 1 December 2017; afterwards he was placed under house arrest. On 16 January 2018, he was taken in custody again.
  1. Barabash, Kirill Vladimirovich, was born on 21 January 1977. A resident of the city of Moscow. Mr Barabash is a retired Air Force lieutenant colonel. He was charged under Part One of Article 282.2 (‘Organisation of the activities of an extremist organisation’) of the Russian Criminal Code for having allegedly pursued the activities of the inter-regional public movement ‘Army of the People’s Will’, banned in Russia in 2010, through the Initiative Group for the Holding of a Referendum ‘For a responsible government’ ‘with the aim of carrying out extremist activities’ and was sentenced to 4 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony and stripped of his military rank. Later, the sentence was reduced to 3 years and 10 months in a general-regime penal colony. Mr Barabash has been held in custody since 17 December 2015.
  1. Bobyshev, Svyatoslav Vasilyevich, was born on 9 August 1953. A resident of the city of Saint Petersburg. He is a professor at the Baltic State Technical University named after D. F. Ustinov (Voenmekh). He was sentenced to 12 years in a strict-regime penal colony under Article 275 (‘High treason’) of the Russian Criminal Code for having allegedly transferred information on the Bulava missile to China. Mr Bobyshev has been held in custody since 16 March 2010.
  1. Dadeu, Mykola Petrovych, was born on 15 February 1986. A businessman, he holds the Ukrainian nationality. At the time of his arrest, he resided in the city of Novorossiysk in Krasnodar Krai where he held a temporary registration. In 2014 – 2015, he aided the Ukrainian armed forces and volunteer battalions. He was sentenced to 1 year and 6 months of imprisonment in a penal settlement under Part Five of Article 33 in conjunction with Part Two of Article 282.2 (‘Assistance in the participation in the activities of an extremist organization by providing means for the commission of crimes’) for his alleged material assistance to the Ukrainian nationalist organization ‘Right Sector’ (‘Pravy Sektor’) during his stay in Ukraine. Mr Dadeu has been held in custody since 10 July 2017, being actually deprived of liberty since 13 June 2017
  1. Degermendzhi, Mustafa Bekirovich, was born on 22 May 1989. A resident of the village of Grushevka in the Sudak city council of Crimea. He is single. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a sales representative. Mr Degermendzhi holds two citizenships (Russian Federation and Ukraine). He was accused of crimes under Part Two of Article 212 (‘Participation in mass riots’) of the Russian Criminal Code a defendant in the 26 February case opened after the clashes near the Supreme Council of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea on 26 February 2014. Mr Degermendzhi was held in custody from 7 May 2015 to 6 April 2017 when he was placed under house arrest.
  1. Eivazov, Alexander Khikmetovich, was born on 19 October 1994. A resident of the city of Saint Petersburg. He pursues extramurally a Master’s degree in Law at the North-West Institute of Management of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation. He is a member of the ‘Yedinaya Rossiya’ (‘United Russia’) political party. He was charged with committing a crime under Part Three of Article 294 (‘Obstructing the course of justice using the official position’) as he disclosed numerous violations in the work of the court where he was employed as a secretary. Mr Eivazov has been held in custody since 24 August 2017.
  1. Geriyev, Zhelaudi Nasrudinovich, was born on 13 June 1993. A resident of the village of Mairtup of Kurchaloyevsky district of Chechnya. He is single. He graduated from the Faculty of History of the Chechen State University. Prior to his arrest, Mr Geriyev worked as a journalist at the Internet media ‘Kavkazsky Uzel’ (‘The Caucasus Knot’) well known for its publications on human rights violations in Chechnya. He was sentenced to 3 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Part Two of Article 228 (‘Illegal storage and transportation of narcotic substances on a large scale without the purpose of selling’) of the Russian Criminal Code. Mr Geriyev has been held in custody since 16 April 2016.
  1. Ivanov, Igor Romanovich, was born on 17 June 1996. An opposition activist of Russian nationalist persuasion from Kaliningrad. He was charged under Part Two of Article 282.1 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist organization’) as a member of ‘B.A.R.S.’ (the Baltic Vanguard of the Russian Resistance). Mr Ivanov has been held in custody since 27 May 2017.
  1. Karpyuk, Mykola Andronovych, was born on 21 May 1964. A resident of the city of Kiev in Ukraine, he holds the Ukrainian nationality. At the time of his arrest, he was one of the leaders of ‘Right Sector’ (‘Pravy Sektor’), an organisation banned in Russia. Mr Karpyuk was sentenced to 22 years and 6 months of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony under part One of Article 209 (‘Creation of a stable armed group (gang) with the aim of assaulting individuals or organizations, and also operation of such a group (gang)’) of the Russian Criminal Code, points ‘v’, ‘z’ and ‘n’ of Article 102 (‘Intentional murder of two or more people in connection with their professional duties, committed by a group of people by preliminary agreement’) of the Criminal Code of the Russian SFSR, and Part Two of Article 15 in conjunction with points ‘v’, ‘z’ and ‘n’ of Article 102 (‘Attempted premeditated murder of two or more people in connection with their professional duties, committed by a group of people by preliminary agreement’) as a defendant in the UNA – UNSO (Ukrainian National Assembly – Ukrainian People's Self-Defence) case for his alleged participation in the Chechen war of 1994 – 1995. Mr Karpyuk has been in custody since 21 March 2014 , being actually deprived of freedom since 17 March 2014.
  1. Klykh, Stanyslav Romanovych, was born on 25 January 1974. A resident of the city of Kiev in Ukraine, he holds the Ukrainian nationality. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a lecturer at the Kiev Transportation and Economics College. Mr Klykh was sentenced to 20 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony under Part Two of Article 209 (‘Participation in a stable armed group (gang) and in the assaults committed by it’) of the Russian Criminal Code, points ‘v’, ‘z’ and ‘n’ of Article 102 (‘Intentional murder of two or more people in connection with their professional duties, committed by a group of people by preliminary agreement’) of the Criminal Code of the Russian SFSR, and Part Two of Article 15 in conjunction with points ‘v’, ‘z’ and ‘n’ of Article 102 (‘Attempted premeditated murder of two or more people in connection with their professional duties, committed by a group of people by preliminary agreement’) as a defendant in the UNA – UNSO (Ukrainian National Assembly – Ukrainian People's Self-Defence) case for his alleged participation in the Chechen war of 1994 – 1995. Mr Klykh was taken into custody by a court decision on 22 August 2014, being actually deprived of freedom since 8 August 2014.
  1. Kolchenko, Oleksandr Oleksandrovych, was born on 26 November 1989. A resident of Crimea. He is an anti-fascist. He worked as a loader at the post office and a print shop, while studying geography extramurally. He was sentenced to 10 years in a strict-regime penal colony under Part Two of Article 205.4 (‘A terrorist act committed by an organised group’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a defendant in the ‘Crimean terrorists’ case. Mr Kolchenko has been held in custody since 16 May 2014.
  1. Kolomiyets, Andrii Volodymyrovych, was born on 8 May 1993. While holding a permanent registration in the village of Viktorivka in Kiev Oblast of Ukraine, he was also temporarily registered in the village of Yantarny of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic of the Russian Federation. He was sentenced to 10 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime colony under Part Three of Article 30 in conjunction with points ‘a’, ‘b’, ‘e’, ‘l’ of Part Two, Article 105 (‘Attempted murder of two individuals in connection with their professional duties committed by generally dangerous means for reasons of political or ideological hatred’) of the Russian Criminal Code and under Part two of Article 228 (‘Illegal acquisition, storage and transportation of plants containing narcotic or psychotropic substances on a large scale without the purpose of selling’) for his participation in the Euromaidan protests in Kiev in winter 2013 – 2014. Mr Kolomiyets has been held in custody since 15 May 2015.
  1. Kostenko, Alexander Fedorovich, was born on 10 March 1986. A resident of Crimea. He is a former employee of the Kiev district branch of the Ukrainian Main Department of Internal Affairs in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea in the city of Simferopol. He was sentenced to 3 years and 11 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony on the charge of crimes under point ‘b’ of Part Two, Article 115 (‘Intentional infliction of light injury which has caused temporary damage of health, committed for reasons of ideological hatred or enmity’) of the Russian Criminal Code and Part One of Article 222 (‘Illegal storage and bearing of firearms and ammunition’) for his participation in the Euromaidan protests in Kiev in winter 2013 – 2014. Mr Kostenko has been held in custody since 6 February 2015.
  1. Kravtsov, Gennady Nikolaevich, was born on 30 October 1968. A resident of the city of Moscow. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a chief design engineer at an IT company. He was sentenced to 14 years in prison in a strict-regime penal colony on a charge of committing a crime under Article 275 (‘High treason’) of the Russian Criminal Code for divulging information on the personnel of intelligence services and military functions of the space satellite Tselina-2. Mr Kravtsov has been held in custody since 27 May 2014.
  1. Krepkin, Dmitri Mikhailovich, was born in 26 October 1984. A resident of the city of Moscow. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a repair technician. He is single. He was sentenced to 1 year and 6 months of imprisonment in a general regime penal colony under Part One of Article 318 (‘Use of force against a representative of the authority’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a defendant in the 26 March case opened after the dispersal of the anti-corruption protest in central Moscow on 26 March 2017. Mr Krepkin has been held in custody since 16 May 2017.
  1. Kudayev, Rasul Vladimirovich, was born on 23 January 1978. He resided in the village of Khasanya near the city of Nalchik of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic. He was sentenced to life imprisonment in a special-regime penal colony under points ‘a’, ‘e’, ‘zh’ and ‘z’ of Article 105 (‘Murder of two or more individuals by generally dangerous means by an organized group, out of mercenary interest related to banditry’) of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, Part Four of Article 166 (‘Unlawful occupancy of transport vehicles without the intention to commit theft committed by an organized group with the use of force dangerous to life and health, and also with the threat of using such force’), Part Three of Article 205 (‘Terrorist act using firearms committed by an organized group resulting in dangerous consequences’), Part Two of Article 209 (Participation in a stable armed group (band) with the aim of assaulting individuals or organizations, and in the assaults committed by it’), Part Two of Article 210 (‘Participation in a criminal group’), Part Three of Article 222 (‘Illegal acquisition, transfer, sale, storage, transportation, or bearing of firearms, its basic parts, ammunition, explosives, and explosive devices committed by an organized group’), Part Two of Article 30 and points ‘a’ and ‘b’ of Part Four, Article 226 (‘Attempt to steal firearms and ammunition committed by an organized group with the use of force dangerous to life and health, and also with the threat of using such force’), points ‘a’ and ‘b’ of Part Four, Article 226 (‘Theft of firearms and ammunition committed by an organized group with the use of force dangerous to life and health, and also with the threat of using such force’), Article 279 (‘Active participation in an armed mutiny aimed at a forcible change of the constitutional order or a violation of the territorial integrity of the Russian Federation’), and Article 317 (‘Attempt on the life of law enforcement officers or military service personnel’) for his alleged participation in the Nalchik attack on 13 October 2005. Mr Kudayev had been held in custody since 23 October 2005.
  1. Kungurov, Alexei Anatolyevich, was born on 6 March 1977. A resident of the city of Tyumen of Tyumen Oblast. He is an opposition blogger and journalist of left nationalist persuasion. He was charged with Part One of Article 205.2 (‘Public justification of terrorism’) of the Russian Criminal Code for having published a post in his blog, critical of the Russian military operation in Syria. Mr Kungurov has been held in custody since 15 June 2016.
  1. Lapygin, Vladimir Ivanovich, was born on 27 August 1940. A resident of the city of Moscow. He holds a PhD in technical sciences and is an associate professor. He is married. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a deputy chief of the Centre for heat exchange and aerogasdynamics of the Central Scientific Research Institute for Machine Building Technology (TsNIIMash, the main centre of Roscosmos) and lectured at the Bauman Moscow State Technical University. He was charged under Article 275 (‘High treason’) and sentenced to 7 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony for having allegedly transferred an unclassified programme for the calculation of aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft. He was placed under house arrest on 13 May 2015. Mr Lapygin has been held in custody since 6 September 2016.
  1. Lytvynov, Serhiy Mykolayovych, was born on 9 March 1983. A resident of the village of Kamyshne of Stanychno-Luhansky district of Luhansk Oblast of Ukraine. A citizen of Ukraine, he has an incomplete secondary education, and, according to his wife, is almost illiterate. Mr Litvinov was not conscripted into the army on grounds of ill health. According to the charges laid against him, he was not officially employed, and is single with no children. However, according to media reports, he is married with a 14-year-old daughter. He was sentenced to 8 years and 6 months in a strict-regime penal colony under Part Three of Article 162 (‘Robbery, involving illegal entry to a residence, premises or other storehouse or on a large scale’) of the Russian Criminal Code for his alleged membership in the voluntary battalion Dnipro-1. Mr Lytvynov has been held in custody since 22 August 2014.
  1. Mamayev, Alexander Arkadiyevich (Father Nikolay), was born on 24 December 1960. A resident of the city of Kaliningrad. A priest of the Russian Orthodox Church, alternative to the Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate. He was charged under Part Two of Article 282.1 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist organization’) as a member of ‘B.A.R.S.’ (the Baltic Vanguard of the Russian Resistance). Mr Mamayev has been held in custody since 27 May 2017.
  1. Maryan, Roman Yevgeniyevich, was born on 8 May 1978. A resident of the village of Yemelyanovo of Krasnoyarsk Krai. He is an opposition activist. He was charged under Part One of Article 30 in conjunction with Part Two of Article 212 (‘Preparation to the participation in mass riots’) as a supporter of the Russian nationalist leader Vyacheslav Maltsev. Mr Maryan has been in custody since 29 October 2017.
  1. Miloserdov, Piotr Kimovich, was born on 3 February 1976. A resident of the city of Moscow, he worked as a political strategist and sociologist. He is a former activist of the Russian nationalist opposition movement. He has three underage children. He was charged under Part One of Article 282.1 (‘Organisation of the activities of an extremist organization’), Part One of Article 282 (‘Incitement of hatred, and abasement of human dignity on the basis of ethnicity’), Point “v” of Part Two of Article 282 (‘Incitement of hatred, and abasement of human dignity on the basis of ethnicity committed by an organised group’), Point “v” of Part Two of Article 282 (‘Incitement of hatred, and abasement of human dignity on the basis of affiliation with a social group committed by an organised group’) of the Russian Criminal Code in the context of persecution of the Russian nationalist leader Alexander Belov (Potkin). Mr Miloserdov has been held in custody since 24 January 2018.
  1. Navalny, Oleg Anatolyevich, was born in 1983. A resident of the city of Moscow. He is the brother of Alexei Navalny, and a former employee of the Federal Russian Post Office. He was sentenced to 3 years and 6 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony and a fine of 500,000 roubles under Part Three of Article 159 (‘Swindling on a large scale’) of the Russian Criminal Code, Part Three of Article 159.4 (‘Swindling on a particularly large scale in the entrepreneurial sphere’), and point ‘a’ of Part Two, Article 174.1 (‘Laundering of funds on a large scale acquired by a person through a crime committed by him’) in the Yves Rocher case. Mr Navalny has been in custody since 30 December 2014.
  1. Orshulevich, Alexander Vladimirovich, was born on 26 November 1987. A resident of city of Kaliningrad. He is an opposition activist of Russian nationalist persuasion. He was charged under Part One of Article 282.1 (‘Organisation of the activities of an extremist organization’) as a member of ‘B.A.R.S.’ (the Baltic Vanguard of the Russian Resistance). Mr Orshulevich has been held in custody since 27 May 2017.
  1. Parfyonov, Valery Nikolaevich, was born on 3 August 1974. A resident of the city of Moscow. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a systems administrator at the Moscow Unified Energy Company. Mr Parfyonov was sentenced to 4 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Part One of Article 282.2 (‘Organisation of the activities of an extremist organisation’) of the Russian Criminal Code, for having allegedly pursued the activities of the inter-regional public movement ‘Army of the People’s Will’, banned in Russia in 2010, through the Initiative Group for the Holding of a Referendum ‘For a responsible government’ ‘with the aim of carrying out extremist activities’. Later the sentence was reduced to 3 years and 10 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony. Mr Parfyonov has been in custody since 28 July 2015.
  1. Parpulov, Piotr Ivanovich, was born in 1955. A resident of the city of Sochi. From the 1980s to his detention in 2014, he worked as an air traffic control officer at the civilian airport in Sochi although he had already reached pensionable age. He was sentenced to 12 years in a strict-regime penal colony under Article 275 (‘High treason’) of the Russian Criminal Code for divulging unidentified classified information that was nonetheless published in the newspaper ‘Krasnaya Zvezda’ (‘Red Star’) and therefore available to the general public. Mr Parpulov has been in custody since 4 March 2014.
  1. Pichugin, Alexei Vladimirovich, was born on 25 July 1962. A resident of the city of Moscow. He is a former head of the department for internal economic security for the Yukos oil company. Two guilty verdicts were delivered against him as a defendant in the Yukos case, in 2005 and 2007, under Article 162 (‘Robbery’) of the Russian Criminal Code and Article 105 (‘Murder’). He was sentenced to life imprisonment in a special-regime penal colony. Mr Pichugin has been in custody since 19 June 2003.
  1. Politikov, Alexei Vladimirovich, was born on 10 November 1972. A resident of the town of Ussuriysk in Primorsky Krai. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a shipping agent and was an activist of the Artpodgotovka movement. He was sentenced to 1 year and 6 months of imprisonment in a general regime penal colony under Part One of Article 318 (‘Use of force against a representative of the authority’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a defendant in the 26 March case opened after the dispersal of the anti-corruption protest in central Moscow on 26 March 2017. Mr Politikov has been held in custody since 10 June 2017.
  1. Prysych, Volodymyr Serhiyovych, was born on 15 May 1983. A resident of the town of Bohoduhiv of Kharkiv Oblast of Ukraine. He is a citizen of Ukraine. He holds a higher education degree. Mr Prysych is married with a daughter. Prior to the arrest, he worked as a cargo truck driver. He was sentenced to 3 years of imprisonment in a general regime penal colony under Part Two of Article 228 (‘Illegal storage of narcotic substances on a large scale) of the Russian Criminal Code as a defendant in the ‘Crimean saboteurs’ case. Mr Prysych has been held in custody since 13 August 2016.
  1. Reznikov, Sergey Petrovich, was born on 25 January 1961. A resident of the city of Moscow. He is the general director of the ‘Demetra-2000 M’ limited liability company. He was sentenced to 3 years of general-regime penal colony on charges under Part Two of Article 228 (‘Illegal storage of narcotic substances on a large scale’) of the Russian Criminal Code in the context of his activities as a member of the territorial electoral commission of the district of Prospect Vernadskogo representing the Communist Party of the Russian Federation. Mr Reznikov has been held in custody since 6 April 2017.
  1. Rudnikov, Igor Petrovich, was born on 4 July 1965. A resident of the city of Kaliningrad. He was a member of the Duma of Kaliningrad Oblast and the editor-in-chief of the independent newspaper ‘Novye kolyosa Igorya Rudnikova’ (Igor Rudnikov’s New Wheels) well known for its publications on corruption in Kaliningrad Oblast. He was charged under point “b” of Part Three of Article 163 (‘Extortion committed by a group of people by preliminary agreement on a particularly large scale’). Mr Rudnikov has been held in custody since 1 November 2017.
  1. Safargali, Danis Vildanovich, was born on 5 May 1976. A resident of the town of Arsk in the Republic of Tatarstan. He worked as a captain and a chief engineer of a vessel. He is the leader of the Tatar patriotic front of Altyn Urda. Mr Safargali was sentenced to 3 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Part Two of Article 115 (‘Intentional infliction of light injury, motivated by hooliganism’) Part Two of Article 116 (‘Battery, motivated by hooliganism’), Part Two of Article 213 (‘Hooliganism committed by a group of people by preliminary agreement’), Part One of Article 282 (‘Incitement of hatred, or abasement of human dignity committed using the Internet’) of the Russian Criminal Code for publications on the Internet, critical of the Russian authorities. Mr Safargali has been held in custody since 21 October 2016.
  1. Sentsov, Nikolai Alexandrovich, was born on 18 November 1971. A resident of the town of Baltiysk in Kaliningrad Oblast. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a chief radio officer and was a civil society activist. He was charged under Part Two of Article 282.1 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist organization’) as a member of ‘B.A.R.S.’ (the Baltic Vanguard of the Russian Resistance). Mr Sentsov has been held in custody since 27 September 2017.
  1. Sentsov, Oleg Gennadyevich, was born on 13 July 1976. A resident of the city of Simferopol. Mr Sentsov is a film director and producer. He was an Automaidan activist and supported the movement for a united Ukraine in Crimea in February-March 2014. Mr Sentsov was sentenced to 20 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony on the charges of crimes envisaged under Part One of Article 205.4 (‘Organisation of a terrorist group’) of the Russian Criminal Code, two episodes under point ‘a’ of Part Two, Article 205 (‘Terrorist act committed by an organised group’), Part One of Article 30 in conjunction with point ‘a’ of Part Two, Article 205, (‘Preparation of a terrorist act’), Part Three of Article 30 in conjunction with Part Three of Article 222 (‘Attempted illegal acquisition of firearms and explosive devices’), and Part Three of Article 222 (‘Illegal acquisition and storage of firearms and explosive devices’) as a defendant in the ‘Crimean terrorists’ case. Mr Sentsov has been in custody since 11 May 2014.
  1. Shatrovsky, Vyacheslav Robertovich, was born on 29 June 1969. A resident of the town of Sharia in Kostroma Oblast. He worked in Moscow as a construction worker. He was detained on Pushkinskaya square in Moscow on 5 November 2017. He was sentenced to 3 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Part One of Article 318 (‘Use of force against a representative of the authority’) of the Russian Criminal Code in the context of the persecution of real and alleged supporters of the Russian nationalist leader Vyacheslav Maltsev. Mr Shatrovsky has been held in custody since 5 November 2017.
  1. Shishkin, Vitaly Viktorovich, was born on 6 August 1972. He is a Russian citizen and an opposition activist of Russian nationalist persuasion. Mr Shishkin was sentenced to 3 years and 11 months in a general-regime penal colony on charges of committing crimes under Part Three of Article 212 (‘Appeals for mass riots’) and Part One of Article 282 (‘Incitement of hatred or enmity’) of the Russian Criminal Code for publishing videos critical of the Russian authorities. Mr Shishkin has been in custody since 13 February 2015.
  1. Shpakov, Alexander Yuryevich, was born on 5 July 1977. A resident of the city of Lyubertsy of Moscow Oblast. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a carpenter. He was sentenced to 1 year and 6 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Part One of Article 318 (‘Use of force against a representative of the authority’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a defendant in the 26 March case opened after the dispersal of the anti-corruption protest in central Moscow on 26 March 2017. Mr Shpakov has been held in custody since 28 March 2017.
  1. Shumkov, Oleksandr Serhiyovych, was born on 19 September 1989. A resident of the city of Kherson in Ukraine, he holds the Ukrainian nationality. At the time of his arrest, he served in the Ukrainian Armed Forces and worked as an investigator at the Military Prosecutor's Office of the Kherson garrison. He was charged under Part Two of Article 282.2 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist organization’) of the Russian Criminal Code as an alleged member of the Ukrainian nationalist organization ‘Right Sector’ (‘Pravy Sektor’) banned in Russia. Mr. Shumkov has formally been in custody since 6 September 2017.
  1. Smyshlyayev, Maxim Nikolayevich, was born on 22 December 1982. He is a resident of the city of Rostov-on-Don of left persuasions. At the time of his arrest, he worked at a McDonald’s outlet and studied extramurally at the Institute of History and International Relations of the Southern Federal University. He was sentenced to 10 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony under Part Three of Article 205.1 (‘Complicity in the preparation of a terrorist act’) of the Russian Criminal Code for having allegedly aided a minor holding the citizenship of Ukraine in the preparation of a terrorist act that did not take place. Mr Smyshlyayev has been held in custody since 22 April 2016.
  1. Sokolov, Alexander Aleksandrovich, was born on 17 November 1987. A resident of the city of Moscow. He holds a PhD in economics. He was worked as a journalist at the RBC news agency. Mr Sokolov was sentenced to 3 years and 6 months of imprisonment in a general regime penal colony under Part One Article 282.2 (‘Organisation of the activities of an extremist organisation’) of the Russian Criminal Code for having allegedly pursued the activities of the inter-regional public movement ‘Army of the People’s Will’, banned in Russia in 2010, through the Initiative Group for the Holding of a Referendum ‘For a responsible government’ ‘with the aim of carrying out extremist activities’. Mr Sokolov has been in custody since 28 July 2015.
  1. Sokolov, Valentin Aleksandrovich, was born on 11 April 1975. A resident of the town of Kolomna in Moscow Oblast. He is a civil society and green activist. He was sentenced to 8 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Part One of Article 282 (‘Incitement of hatred on the basis of race and ethnicity committed using the Internet’) of the Russian Criminal Code for reposting xenophobic publications on social media. Mr Sokolov has been held in custody since 12 January 2018.
  1. Staroverov, Yury Viktorovich, was born on 14 November 1982. He is an activist of the party ‘The Other Russia’ and a member of the civil movement of Nizhny Novgorod. Mr Staroverov was sentenced to 3 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Part One of Article 318 (‘Use of force against a representative of the authority’) of the Russian Criminal Code for having allegedly hit a riot police officer during the dispersal of a civil march in Nizhny Novgorod on 15 September 2012. Mr Staroverov has been held in custody since 10 February 2016.
  1. Titiev, Oyub Salmanovich, was born on 24 August 1957. A resident of the village of Kurchaloi in the Chechen Republic, he is the head of the Grozny office of the Human Rights Centre Memorial. He was charged under Part Two of Article 228 (Illegal acquisition and storage of narcotic substances on a large scale’). Mr Titiev has been held in custody since 9 January 2018.
  1. Tretyakov, Dmitry Aleksandrovich, was born on 27 May 1986. A resident of the town of Spassk-Dalny of Primorsky Krai. He is a lawyer and supporter of the Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny. He was charged under with committing crimes under Part Two of Article 280 (‘Public appeals for an extremist activity committed using the Internet’) of the Russian Criminal Code for reposting publications in a messenger. Mr. Tretyakov has been held in custody since 14 March 2018.
  1. Tyumentsev, Vadim Viktorovich, was born on 3 December 1980. A resident of the city of Tomsk. He is a video blogger and a civil society activist. Mr Tyumentsev was sentenced to 5 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Part Two of Article 280 (‘Public appeals for an extremist activity committed using the Internet’) of the Russian Criminal Code and Part One of Article 282 (‘Actions aimed at the incitement of enmity, or abasement of human dignity on the basis of their sex, race, nationality, language, origin, attitude to religion and also their affiliation with a social group.’) for publishing videos critical of the Russian authorities. Mr Tyumentsev has been in custody since 28 April 2015.
  1. Zagreyev, Robert Raufanovich, was born on 3 July 1964. A resident of the city of Ufa in the Republic of Bashkortostan. He is a journalist and an opposition politician. He was sentenced to 3 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony on charges of crimes under Part One of Article 205.2 (‘Public appeals for terrorist activity’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with publications calling for a revolution to build a new society posted on his web-sites. Mr Zagreev was under house arrest from 27 April to 22 May 2015, and has been in custody since 29 October 2015.
  1. Zimovets, Stanislav Sergeyevich, was born in 14 April 1985. A resident of the town of Volzhsky of Volgograd Oblast. He holds an incomplete higher education degree. He served as a combat engineer in Chechnya. Prior to his arrest, he was not officially employed. Mr Zimovets was sentenced to 2 years and 6 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Part One of Article 318 (‘Use of force against a representative of the authority’) as a defendant in the 26 March case opened after the dispersal of the anti-corruption protest in central Moscow on 26 March 2017. Mr Zimovets has been held in custody since 1 April 2017.