List of Individuals Recognised as Political Prisoners by the Memorial Human Rights Centre (with the Exception of Those Persecuted in connection with the Realisation of their Right to Freedom of Religion) as of 19 February 2020

Publication date: 19.02.2020

We consider political prisoners to be individuals who are serving a prison sentence, as well as those being held in custody or under house arrest as a form of pre-trial detention. We reckon among political prisoners individuals who are being persecuted in connection with the realisation of their legitimate rights as well as those who are being unlawfully or disproportionately persecuted by the authorities for political reasons. We do not regard as political prisoners those individuals who used violence against the person or called for violence on the grounds of religion, nationality, race etc. All the criteria for considering individuals as political prisoners are published on our website.

There are 63 names in the present list. The names of those who are being persecuted mainly in connection with the realisation of their right to freedom of religion can be found in a separate list. This list is far from being complete. It includes only those individuals and cases for which we have managed to collect and analyse sufficient information for a convincing conclusion to be drawn about a politically motivated and illegal nature of their criminal prosecution. Today, the list does not contain the names of a large number of people who have been deprived of liberty, and whose prosecution contains indications of illegality or political motivation, but for whose cases we have either not yet received the required information, or have not yet fully analysed the information.

The political prisoners come from different groups persecuted by the State for political reasons. The ‘Ukrainian trail’ can be clearly traced in the cases of current or former Ukrainian citizens Andrii Kolomiyets, Oleksandr Shumkov, Oleksandr Marchenko, and Hlib Shabliy.

Restriction of the right to assembly has remained one of the most important goals of politically motivated incarceration. After the manifestations in central Moscow on 27 July and 3 August 2019, real and supposed protesters faced absurd criminal charges: Danil Beglets, Kirill Zhukov, Yevgeny Kovalenko, Ivan Podkopayev, Nikita Chirtsov, Eduard Malyshevsky, Yegor Lesnykh, Maksim Martintsov, Konstantin Kotov, and Sergei Surovtsev are among them. Six Ingush opposition leaders – Akhmed Barakhoyev, Musa Malsagov, Ismail Nalgiev, Malsag Uzhahov, Barakh Chemurziev, and Zarifa Sautieva – were arrested after protesters clashed with police forces in Magas on 27 March 2019. Arbitrary detentions of real and supposed supporters of the Russian opposition leader Vyacheslav Maltsev in connection with their actual or intended participation in the protests on 5 November 2017 developed into several criminal cases. Presently, only a small number of those whose persecution is connected to ‘the 5 November’ case appear in the present list – Roman Maryan, Vyacheslav Shatrovsky, Yan Sidorov, Vladislav Mordasov, Oleg Dmitriev, Oleg Ivanov, and Sergei Ozerov.

The Russian authorities have intensified a crackdown on freedom of expression and dissemination of information, particularly, in the Internet: Airat Dilmukhametov, Vladislav Sinitsa, and Mark Galperin were put behind bars for trying to exercise this right. In Dagestan, local journalist Abdulmunin Gadzhiev was deprived of freedom on absurd, trumped-up terrorism-related charges.

Criminal prosecution has also been used to restrict freedom of association. The association of Kaliningrad regionalists of monarchist persuasion ‘B.A.R.S’ (the Baltic Vanguard of the Russian Resistance) was groundlessly labelled terrorist; its members – Aleksandr Orshulevich, Igor Ivanov, Aleksandr Mamayev, and Nikolai Sentsov – found themselves behind bars. Maria Dubovik, Anna Pavlikova, Ruslan Kostylenkov, Maxim Roschin, Piotr Karamzin, Dmitry Poletayev, Sergey Gavrilov, and Vyacheslav Kryukov have been persecuted in connection with the ‘Novoye Velichiye’ (New Greatness) case – an organisation essentially created by security services to improve the statistics on the fight against extremism. Antifascist activists from St. Petersburg and Penza Viktor Filinkov, Yulian Boyarshinov, Igor Shishkin, Andrei Chernov, Dmitry Pchelintsev, Maksim Ivankin, Mikhail Kulkov, Arman Sagynbayev, Ilya Shakursky, and Vasily Kuksov are persecuted in connection with the ‘Set’ (Network) case – an organisation declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group.

The high treason cases of Gennady Kravtsov, Piotr Parpulov, and Vladimir Lapygin have helped propaganda to create the image of a Russia besieged by enemies.

Dozens of different articles of the Russian Criminal Code have been utilised as tools of political repression. The most widely used articles are those related to extremism (incitement of hatred and enmity; public appeals for extremist activities; organisation of the activities of an extremist organisation), terrorism (terrorist act; complicity in terrorist activity and justification of such an activity, organisation of a terrorist group), and maintaining law and order at public gatherings (mass riots; multiple violations of the established procedure for organising gatherings; use of force against a public official).

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  1. Barakhoyev, Akhmed Osmanovich, was born on 19 April 1954. A resident of the village of Novy Redant in the Malgobek district of the Ingush republic, he is a member of the Ingush Committee of the National Unity and a member of the Council of the Teips (clans) of the Ingush People. He has a higher education degree. He is a pensioner. He was charged with committing a crime under Part Three of Article 33 in conjunction with Part Two of Article 318 (‘Organising acts of violence endangering the life or health of public officials’) and Part One of Article 282.1 (‘Organisation of the activities of an extremist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code after the clashes of protesters with police in Magas on 27 March 2019. He has been held in custody since 3 April 2019.
  2. Beglets, Danil Yuryevich, was born in 1992. A resident of the city of Mytishchi of Moscow Oblast, he completed a specialised secondary education. He is a businessman. He is married with two children. He was sentenced to 2 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Part One of Article 318 (‘Use of force against a public official’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a protester who took part in the manifestation in central Moscow on 27 July 2019. He has been held in custody since 9 August 2019.
  3. Boyarshinov, Yuly (Yulian) Nikolayevich, was born on 10 July 1991. A resident of the city of Saint Petersburg, he is a left-wing antifascist activist. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a steeplejack. He is charged under Part One of Article 222.1 (‘Illegal storage of explosives’) and Part Two of Article 205.4 (‘Participation in a terrorist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Set case, an organisation declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group. He has been held in custody since 21 January 2018.
  4. Chemurziev, Barakh Akhmetovich, was born on 17 May 1969. A resident of the village of Troitskaya of the Sunzha district of the Republic of Ingushetia, he is the chair of the Opora Ingushetii movement (The Mainstay of Ingushetia), a member of the Ingush Committee of the National Unity, and a member of the Presidium of the World Congress of the Ingush People. He is married with three children, one of them being disabled. He was charged with committing a crime under Part Three of Article 33 in conjunction with Part Two of Article 318 (‘Organising acts of violence endangering the life or health of public officials’) and Part Two of Article 282.1 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code after the clashes of protesters with police in Magas on 27 March 2019. He has been held in custody since 3 April 2019.
  5. Chernov, Andrei Sergeyevich, was born on 18 March 1989. A resident of the city of Penza, he is an antifascist activist of left-wing persuasion. Prior to his arrest, he worked as an assembler at a plant and studied at the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of the Penza Pedagogical University. He was sentenced to 14 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony under Part Two of Article 205.4 (‘Participation in a terrorist association’) and Part Three of Article 30 in conjunction with Point ‘g’ of Part Four of Article 228.1 (‘Attempt to commit large-scale illegal dealing in drugs’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Set case, an organisation declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group. He has been held in custody since 9 November 2017.
  6. Chirtsov, Nikita Maksimovich, was born on 9 April 1997. A resident of the city of Berezniki in Perm Krai, he is a programmer. He was sentenced to 1 year of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Part One of Article 318 (‘Use of force against a public official’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a protester who took part in the manifestation in central Moscow on 27 July 2019. He has been held in custody since 2 September 2019.
  7. Dilmukhametov, Airat Akhnafovich, was born on 21 June 1966. A resident of the city of Ufa in the Republic of Bashkortostan, he is an opposition activist and an active member of the Bashir nationalist movement. He was charged under Part Two of Article 280.1 (‘Public appeals to actions aimed at violation of the territorial integrity of the Russian Federation’), Part Two of Article 205.2 (‘Public appeals to terrorist activities, public justification of terrorist activities, or terrorist propaganda using the Internet’), Part One of Article 280 (‘Public appeals to extremist activities’) and Part One of Article 282.3 (‘Fund raising for extremist activities’) of the Russian Criminal Code. He has been held in custody since 14 March 2019.
  8. Dmitriev, Oleg Sergeyevich, was born on 7 June 1979. A resident of the city of Almetievsk in the Republic of Tatarstan, he was employed as a construction worker. He was sentenced to 8 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony followed with 1 year of restricted freedom under Part One of Article 30 in conjunction with Point ‘a’ of Part Two of Article 205 (‘Preparation to a terrorist act committed by a group of people by preliminary agreement’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a supporter of the Russian nationalist leader Vyacheslav Maltsev. He has been held in custody since 2 November 2017.
  9. Dmitriev, Yuri Alekseyevich, was born on 28 January 1956. A resident of the city of Pertozavodsk in the Republic of Karelia, he is a historian, researcher of the mass graves of victims of political repression, the head of the Karelia branch of the Memorial Society, a member of the Commission for restoring the rights of rehabilitated victims of political repressions under the Government of the Republic of Karelia. Initially he was charged under point ‘v’ of Part Two of Article 242.2 (‘Use of a minor for the purposes of production of pornographic materials’), Part Three of Article 135 (‘Perverted acts without the use of force against a minor’), and Part One of Article 222 (‘Illegal storage of main components of firearms’) of the Russian Criminal Code. Mr Dmitriev was acquitted of child pornography charges and was sentenced to 2 years and 6 months of restricted freedom for the illegal storage of firearms components but the Supreme Court of the Republic of Karelia reversed the verdict and sent the case for re-examination. Later Mr Dmitriev was charged under point ‘b’ of Part Four of Article 132 (‘Violent actions of sexual character against a minor’) He held in custody from 13 December 2016 to 27 January 2018 when he was released under a written undertaking not to leave the place. On 27 June 2018, Mr Dmitriev was taken into custody once again.
  10. Dubovik, Maria Sergeyevna, was born on 21 September 1998. A resident of Lyubertsy district of Moscow Oblast, she was a student of the Skryabin Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology. She was charged under Part One of Article 282.1 (‘Organisation of the activities of an extremist association’) and Part Two of Article 282.1 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Novoye Velichiye case. Ms Dubovik was in custody from 15 March to 16 August 2018 when she was placed under house arrest.
  11. Filinkov, Viktor Sergeyevich, was born on 10 July 1991. A resident of the city of Saint Petersburg, he holds the Kazakhstani nationality. He is a left-wing antifascist activist. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a programmer. He is charged under Part Two of Article 205.4 (‘Participation in a terrorist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Set case, an organisation declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group. He has been held in custody since 23 January 2018.
  12. Gadzhiev, Abdulmumin Khabibovich, was born on 18 June 1984. A resident of the city of Makhachkala in the Republic of Dagestan, he works as the editor of the department of religion of the Dagestani Chernovik newspaper (The Draft). He is married with four children. He was charged under Part Two of Article 205.5 (‘Participation in the activities of a terrorist organisation’) and Part Four of Article 205.1 (‘Financing terrorist activities’) of the Russian Criminal Code as an alleged member of the Islamic State in connection with an interview with an Islamic preacher. He has been held in custody since 14 June 2019.
  13. Galperin, Mark Izrailevich, was born on 20 April 1968. A resident of the town of Reutov in the Moscow Oblast. He graduated from the Moscow Automotive Institute and worked as a marketing specialist and a sales assistant. A civil society activist, one of the leaders of the ‘Novaya oppozitsiya’ movement. In 2015, he was charged under Article 212.1 (‘Repeated violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding gatherings, rallies, demonstrations, marches or picketing’). Mr Galperin gave a written undertaking not to leave the place of his permanent residence. On 29 September 2015, the Tverskoy district court of Moscow sentenced Mark Galperin to a fine of 200,000 rubles. Human Rights Centre Memorial considered his prosecution to be illegal and politically motivated. In 2016, Mr Galperin was given a suspended sentence of 2 years of imprisonment under Part Two of Article 280 (Public appeals for an extremist activity committed using the Internet’) of the Russian Criminal Code. In 2019, the suspended sentence was replaced with a real sentence of 1 year and 6 months of imprisonment in a settlement penal colony. He was held under house arrest from 7 June to 7 March 2017. He was taken into custody on 4 December 2019.
  14. Ivankin, Maksim Sergeyevich, was born on 28 December 1994. A resident of the city of Penza, he is an antifascist activist of left-wing persuasion. He was sentenced to 13 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony under Part Three of Article 30 in conjunction with Point ‘g’ of Part Four of Article 228.1 (‘Attempt to commit large-scale illegal dealing in drugs’) and Part Two of Article 205.4 (‘Participation in a terrorist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Set case, an organisation declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group. He was detained on 4 July 2018 and taken into custody on the following day.
  15. Ivanov, Igor Romanovich, was born on 17 June 1996. An opposition activist of Russian nationalist persuasion from Kaliningrad. He was charged under Part Two of Article 205.4 (‘Participation in the activities of a terrorist organisation’), Part One of Article 280 (‘Public appeals for extremist activities’), Part Three of Article 222 (‘Illegal acquisition, transfer, sale, storage, transportation, or bearing of firearms, its basic parts, ammunition, committed by an organised group’), Part Three of Article 222.1 (‘Illegal acquisition transfer, sale, storage, transportation, or bearing of explosives or explosive devices, committed by an organised group’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a member of ‘B.A.R.S.’ (the Baltic Vanguard of the Russian Resistance). Mr Ivanov has been held in custody since 27 May 2017.
  16. Ivanov, Oleg Aleksandrovich, was born on 29 June 1977. A resident of the city of Almetievsk in the Republic of Tatarstan, he was employed as an electrician. He was sentenced to 7 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony followed with 1 year of restricted freedom under Part One of Article 30 in conjunction with Point ‘a’ of Part Two of Article 205 (‘Preparation to a terrorist act committed by a group of people by preliminary agreement’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a supporter of the Russian nationalist leader Vyacheslav Maltsev. He has been held in custody since 2 November 2017.
  17. Karamzin, Piotr Aleksandrovich, was born on 23 April 1979. A resident of the city of Moscow, he earned a higher education degree in jurisprudence. At the time of his arrest, he was not officially employed. He was charged under Part One of Article 282.1 (‘Organisation of the activities of an extremist association’) and Part Two of Article 282.1 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Novoye Velichiye case. Mr Karamzin has been held in custody since 15 March 2018.
  18. Kolomiyets, Andrii Volodymyrovych, was born on 8 May 1993. While holding a permanent registration in the village of Viktorivka in Kiev Oblast of Ukraine, he was also temporarily registered in the village of Yantarny of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic of the Russian Federation. He was sentenced to 10 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime colony under Part Three of Article 30 in conjunction with points ‘a’, ‘b’, ‘e’, ‘l’ of Part Two, Article 105 (‘Attempted murder of two individuals in connection with their professional duties committed by generally dangerous means for reasons of political or ideological hatred’) of the Russian Criminal Code and under Part Two of Article 228 (‘Illegal acquisition, storage and transportation of plants containing narcotic or psychotropic substances on a large scale without the purpose of selling’) for his participation in the Euromaidan protests in Kiev in winter 2013 – 2014. Mr Kolomiyets has been held in custody since 15 May 2015.
  19. Kostylenkov, Ruslan Dmitiyevich, was born on 15 March 1993. A resident of the town of Khotkovo in Moscow Oblast, he completed a specialised secondary education. At the time of his arrest, he was not officially employed. He was charged under Part One of Article 282.1 (‘Organisation of the activities of an extremist association’) and Part Two of Article 282.1 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Novoye Velichiye case. Mr Kostylenkov has been held in custody since 15 March 2018.
  20. Kotov, Konstantin Aleksandrovich, was born 22 February 1985. A resident of the city of Moscow, he is a civil society activist engaged in the assistance to political prisoners. He works as a programmer. He was sentenced to 4 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Article 212.1 (‘Repeated violation of the rules governing public assemblies’) of the Russian Criminal Code for his participation in protests. He has been held in custody since 12 August 2019.
  21. Kovalenko, Yevgeny Dmitrievich, was born in 1971. A resident of the village of Stolbovaya in the Chekhov district of Moscow Oblast, he holds a higher education degree. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a security guard at the Russian railways company. He was sentenced to 3 years and 6 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Part One of Article 318 (‘Use of force against a public official’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a protester who took part in the manifestation in central Moscow on 27 July 2019. He has been held in custody since 1 August 2019.
  22. Kravtsov, Gennady Nikolaevich, was born on 30 October 1968. A resident of the city of Moscow. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a chief design engineer at an IT company. He was sentenced to 14 years in prison in a strict-regime penal colony on a charge of committing a crime under Article 275 (‘High treason’) of the Russian Criminal Code for divulging information on the personnel of intelligence services and military functions of the space satellite Tselina-2. Mr Kravtsov has been held in custody since 27 May 2014.
  23. Kryukov, Vyacheslav Vladislavovich, was born on 30 May 1998. A resident of Moscow, he was a third-year student of the Law Faculty of the Russian State University of Justice. He was charged under Part One of Article 282.1 (‘Organisation of the activities of an extremist association’) and Part Two of Article 282.1 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Novoye Velichiye case. Mr Kryukov has been held in custody since 15 March 2018.
  24. Kudayev, Rasul Vladimirovich, was born on 23 January 1978. He resided in the village of Khasanya near the city of Nalchik of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic. He was sentenced to life imprisonment in a special-regime penal colony under points ‘a’, ‘e’, ‘zh’ and ‘z’ of Article 105 (‘Murder of two or more individuals by generally dangerous means by an organised group, out of mercenary interest related to banditry’) of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, Part Four of Article 166 (‘Unlawful occupancy of transport vehicles without the intention to commit theft committed by an organised group with the use of force dangerous to life and health, and also with the threat of using such force’), Part Three of Article 205 (‘Terrorist act using firearms committed by an organised group resulting in dangerous consequences’), Part Two of Article 209 (Participation in a stable armed group (band) with the aim of assaulting individuals or organisations, and in the assaults committed by it’), Part Two of Article 210 (‘Participation in a criminal group’), Part Three of Article 222 (‘Illegal acquisition, transfer, sale, storage, transportation, or bearing of firearms, its basic parts, ammunition, explosives, and explosive devices committed by an organised group’), Part Two of Article 30 and points ‘a’ and ‘b’ of Part Four, Article 226 (‘Attempt to steal firearms and ammunition committed by an organised group with the use of force dangerous to life and health, and also with the threat of using such force’), points ‘a’ and ‘b’ of Part Four, Article 226 (‘Theft of firearms and ammunition committed by an organised group with the use of force dangerous to life and health, and also with the threat of using such force’), Article 279 (‘Active participation in an armed mutiny aimed at a forcible change of the constitutional order or a violation of the territorial integrity of the Russian Federation’), and Article 317 (‘Attempt on the life of law enforcement officers or military service personnel’) for his alleged participation in the Nalchik attack on 13 October 2005. Mr Kudayev had been held in custody since 23 October 2005.
  25. Kuksov, Vasily Alekseyevich, was born on 21 May 1988. A resident of the city of Penza, he is an antifascist and animals’ rights activist of left-wing persuasion. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a design engineer and played in a rock band. He was sentenced to 9 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Part Two of Article 205.4 (‘Participation in a terrorist association’) and Part One of Article 222 (‘Illegal storage of firearms and ammunition’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Set case, an organisation declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group. He has been held in custody since 19 October 2017.
  26. Kulkov, Mikhail Alekseyevich, was born on 12 October 1994. A resident of the city of Penza, he is an antifascist activist of left-wing persuasion. He was sentenced to 10 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony under Part Three of Article 30 in conjunction with Point ‘g’ of Part Four of Article 228.1 (‘Attempt to commit large-scale illegal dealing in drugs’) and Part Two of Article 205.4 (‘Participation in a terrorist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Set case, an organisation declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group. He was detained on 4 July 2018 and taken into custody on the following day.
  27. Kurakin, Yevgeny Nikolayevich, was born on 6 September 1977. A resident of the town of Reutov in Moscow Oblast, he is a journalist. He is a former president of the homeowner association Parkovaya, dom 8. He was charged under Part Four of Article 159 (‘Embezzlement on a particularly large scale’). He has been waiting for reconsideration of his case in court. He was in custody from 28 February 2014 to 9 July 2015 when he was released on bail. Mr. Kurakin was also held in custody from 7 June to 15 October 2019, when he was placed under house arrest.
  28. Lapygin, Vladimir Ivanovich, was born on 27 August 1940. A resident of the city of Moscow. He holds a PhD in technical sciences and is an associate professor. He is married. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a deputy chief of the Centre for heat exchange and aerogasdynamics of the Central Scientific Research Institute for Machine Building Technology (TsNIIMash, the main centre of Roscosmos) and lectured at the Bauman Moscow State Technical University. He was charged under Article 275 (‘High treason’) and sentenced to 7 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony for having allegedly transferred an unclassified programme for the calculation of aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft. He was placed under house arrest on 13 May 2015. Mr Lapygin has been held in custody since 6 September 2016.
  29. Lesnykh, Yegor Sergeyevich, was born on 8 November 1984. A resident of the city of Moscow, he is a blood donor, animal rights and anti-poverty activist. He completed a secondary specialised education. Prior to his arrest, he was a self-employed in the sphere of construction. He was sentenced to 3 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Part One of Article 318 (‘Use of force against a public official’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a protester who took part in the manifestation in central Moscow on 27 July 2019. He has been held in custody since 14 October 2019.
  30. Malsagov, Musa Aslanovich, was born on 8 March 1972. A resident of the city of Nazran in the Republic of Ingushetia, he is a co-chair of the World Congress of the Ingush People, the chair of the Ingushetia branch of the Russian Red Cross, and a former member of the National Assembly of the Republic of Ingushetia from the United Russia party. He holds a higher education degree. He is married with four underage children. He was charged with committing a crime under Part Three of Article 33 in conjunction with Part Two of Article 318 (‘Organising acts of violence endangering the life or health of public officials’) after the clashes of protesters with police in Magas on 27 March 2019. He has been held in custody since 3 April 2019.
  31. Malyshevsky, Eduard Vadimovich, was born on 23 March 1972. A resident of the city of Khimki in Moscow Oblast, he is a refurbishment specialist. He sentenced to 2 years and 9 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Part One of Article 318 (‘Use of force against a public official’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a protester who took part in the manifestation in central Moscow on 27 July 2019. He has been held in custody since 30 August 2019.
  32. Mamayev, Aleksandr Arkadiyevich (Father Nikolay), was born on 24 December 1960. A resident of the city of Kaliningrad. A priest of the Russian Orthodox Church, alternative to the Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate. He was charged under Part Two of Article 205.4 (‘Participation in the activities of a terrorist organisation’), Part One of Article 280 (‘Public appeals for extremist activities’), Part Three of Article 222 (‘Illegal acquisition, transfer, sale, storage, transportation, or bearing of firearms, its basic parts, ammunition, committed by an organised group’), Part Three of Article 222.1 (‘Illegal acquisition transfer, sale, storage, transportation, or bearing of explosives or explosive devices, committed by an organised group’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a member of ‘B.A.R.S.’ (the Baltic Vanguard of the Russian Resistance). Mr Mamayev has been held in custody since 27 May 2017.
  33. Marchenko, Oleksandr Volodymyrovych, was born on 11 October 1971. A Ukrainian national, he is a resident of the Ukrainian city of Dnipro. He was charged under Part One of Article 30 in conjunction with Part One of Article 226.1 (‘Preparation to acquire and illegally transfer military-related equipment from the territory of the Russian Federation through the customs border of the Customs Union of the Eurasian Economic Union’) of the Russian Criminal Code. He has been held in custody since 18 February 2019.
  34. Martintsov, Maksim Alekseyevich, was born on 7 October 1993. A resident of the city of Moscow, he completed a secondary specialised education and worked as a laboratory engineer at a construction company. He was sentenced to 2 years and 6 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Part One of Article 318 (‘Use of force against a public official’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a protester who took part in the manifestation in central Moscow on 27 July 2019. He has been held in custody since 14 October 2019.
  35. Maryan, Roman Yevgeniyevich, was born on 8 May 1978. A resident of the village of Yemelyanovo of Krasnoyarsk Krai. He is an opposition activist. He was sentenced to 3 years and 2 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Part One of Article 30 in conjunction with Part Two of Article 212 (‘Preparation to the participation in mass riots’) as a supporter of the Russian nationalist leader Vyacheslav Maltsev. Mr Maryan has been in custody since 29 October 2017.
  36. Miftakhov, Azat Fanisovich, was born on 22 March 1993. A resident of the city of Moscow, he is a PhD student at the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics of the Moscow State University. He is a person of Anarchist persuasion. The security services claim that Mr. Miftakhov is an active member of the libertarian political movement of Narodnaya Samooborona (The People’s Self-Defense). He is charged under Part Two of Article 213 (‘Hooliganism committed by a group of people by preliminary agreement’) for his alleged participation in an attack against a United Russia party office in Moscow and is suspected of committing a crime under Part One of Article 223.1 (‘Illegal fabrication of explosive material or explosive devices’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the fabrication of an explosive device. On 12 February 2019, he was taken into custody in connection with the alleged hooliganism case being actually deprived of freedom since 1 February 2019.
  37. Mordasov, Vladislav Yevgenyevich, was born on 6 May 1996. A resident of the town of Bataysk in Rostov Oblast, he worked as a foundry man. He was sentenced to 6 years and 7 months of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony under Part Three of Article 30 in conjunction with Part One of Article 212 (‘Attempt to organise mass riots’) of the Russian Criminal Code in the context of the persecution of the Russian nationalist leader Vyacheslav Maltsev. Mr Mordasov was formally placed in custody on 10 November 2017, being actually deprived of freedom since 5 November 2017.
  38. Nalgiev, Ismail Makhmudovich, was born on 23 October 1991. A resident of the Republic of Ingushetia, he is the head of the regional NGO Vybor Ingushetii (The Choice of Ingushetia), a member of the Ingush Committee of the National Unity. He was charged with committing a crime under Part Three of Article 33 in conjunction with Part Two of Article 318 (‘Organising acts of violence endangering the life or health of public officials’) and Part Two of Article 282.1 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code after the clashes of protesters with police in Magas on 27 March 2019. He has been held in custody since 8 May 2019.
  39. Orshulevich, Aleksandr Vladimirovich, was born on 26 November 1987. A resident of city of Kaliningrad. He is an opposition activist of Russian nationalist persuasion. He was charged under Part One of Article 205.4 (‘Organisation of the activities of a terrorist organisation’), Part One of Article 280 (‘Public appeals for extremist activities’), Part Three of Article 222 (‘Illegal acquisition, transfer, sale, storage, transportation, or bearing of firearms, its basic parts, ammunition, committed by an organised group’), Part Three of Article 222.1 (‘Illegal acquisition transfer, sale, storage, transportation, or bearing of explosives or explosive devices, committed by an organised group’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a member of ‘B.A.R.S.’ (the Baltic Vanguard of the Russian Resistance). Mr Orshulevich has been held in custody since 27 May 2017.
  40. Ozerov, Sergei Ivanovich, was born on 6 April 1972. A resident of the town of Arzamas in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, he was employed as an industrial worker. He was sentenced to 8 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony followed with 1 year of restricted freedom under Part One of Article 30 in conjunction with Point ‘a’ of Part Two of Article 205 (‘Preparation to a terrorist act committed by a group of people by preliminary agreement’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a supporter of the Russian nationalist leader Vyacheslav Maltsev. He has been held in custody since 2 November 2017.
  41. Parpulov, Piotr Ivanovich, was born in 1955. A resident of the city of Sochi. From the 1980s to his detention in 2014, he worked as an air traffic control officer at the civilian airport in Sochi although he had already reached pensionable age. He was sentenced to 12 years in a strict-regime penal colony under Article 275 (‘High treason’) of the Russian Criminal Code for divulging unidentified classified information that was nonetheless published in the newspaper ‘Krasnaya Zvezda’ (‘Red Star’) and therefore available to the general public. Mr Parpulov has been in custody since 4 March 2014.
  42. Pavlikova, Anna Dmitryevna, was born on 27 March 2000. A resident of the city of Moscow, she completed secondary education and worked as a veterinary attendant. She was charged under Part One of Article 282.1 (‘Organisation of the activities of an extremist association’) and Part Two of Article 282.1 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Novoye Velichiye case. Ms Pavlikova was held in custody from 15 March to 16 August 2018 when she was placed under house arrest.
  43. Pchelintsev, Dmitry Dmitriyevich, was born on 14 May 1992. A resident of the city of Penza, he is an antifascist activist of left-wing persuasion. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a shooting instructor at the veteran organisation of the Union of Paratroopers of Russia. He was sentenced to 18 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony followed with 1 year and 6 months of restricted freedom under Part One of Article 205.4 (‘Organisation of a terrorist association’) and Part One of Article 222 (‘Illegal storage of firearms and ammunition’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Set case, an organisation declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group. He has been held in custody since 27 October 2017.
  44. Pichugin, Aleksei Vladimirovich, was born on 25 July 1962. A resident of the city of Moscow. He is a former head of the department for internal economic security for the Yukos oil company. Two guilty verdicts were delivered against him as a defendant in the Yukos case, in 2005 and 2007, under Article 162 (‘Robbery’) of the Russian Criminal Code and Article 105 (‘Murder’). He was sentenced to life imprisonment in a special-regime penal colony. Mr Pichugin has been in custody since 19 June 2003.
  45. Podkopayev, Ivan Romanovich, was born on 28 October 1993. A resident of the city of Moscow, he completed a specialised secondary education. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a librarian. He was sentenced to 3 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Part One of Article 318 (‘Use of force against a public official’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a protester who took part in the manifestation in central Moscow on 27 July 2019. Later his prison term was reduced to 2 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony. He has been held in custody since 27 July 2019.
  46. Poletayev, Dmitry Vladimirovich, was born on 18 November 1988. A resident of the city of Moscow, he earned a higher education degree. At the time of his arrest, he was not officially employed. He was charged under Part One of Article 282.1 (‘Organisation of the activities of an extremist association’) and Part Two of Article 282.1 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Novoye Velichiye case. Mr Poletayev has been held in custody since 15 March 2018.
  47. Roschin, Maxim Vitalyevich, was born on 21 July 1979. A resident of the city of Khimki in Moscow Oblast. He was charged under Part One of Article 282.1 (‘Organisation of the activities of an extremist association’) and Part Two of Article 282.1 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist organisation’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Novoye Velichiye case. Mr Roschin was detained on 15 March 2018, he has been under house arrest ever since.
  48. Sagynbayev, Arman Dauletovich, was born on 9 June 1992. A self-employed from Saint Petersburg, he is of antifascist persuasion and was in contact with antifascists from Penza, his official place of residence. He was sentenced to 6 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Part Two of Article 205.4 (‘Participation in a terrorist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Set case, an organisation declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group. He has been held in custody since 6 November 2017.
  49. Sautieva, Zarifa Mukharbekovna, was born on 1 May 1978. A resident of the town of Sunzha in the Republic of Ingushetia, she is a member of the Ingush Committee of the National Unity. She holds a higher education degree. She a former deputy director of the Memorial Museum of the Victims of Repressions in Ingushetia. She was charged with committing a crime under Part Three of Article 33 in conjunction with Part Two of Article 318 (‘Organising acts of violence endangering the life or health of public officials’) and Part Two of Article 282.1 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code after the clashes of protesters with police in Magas on 27 March 2019. She has been held in custody since 12 July 2019.
  50. Sentsov, Nikolai Aleksandrovich, was born on 18 November 1971. A resident of the town of Baltiysk in Kaliningrad Oblast. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a chief radio officer and was a civil society activist. He was charged under Part Two of Article 205.4 (‘Participation in the activities of a terrorist organisation’), Part One of Article 280 (‘Public appeals for extremist activities’), Part Three of Article 222 (‘Illegal acquisition, transfer, sale, storage, transportation, or bearing of firearms, its basic parts, ammunition, committed by an organised group’), Part Three of Article 222.1 (‘Illegal acquisition transfer, sale, storage, transportation, or bearing of explosives or explosive devices, committed by an organised group’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a member of ‘B.A.R.S.’ (the Baltic Vanguard of the Russian Resistance). Mr Sentsov has been held in custody since 27 September 2017.
  51. Shabliy, Hlib Fedorovych, was born on 27 April 1975. A resident of the city of Sevastopol in Crimea, he holds the Russian and Ukrainian citizenships. He graduated from the Sevastopol Naval Institute, served as a Ukrainian naval officer, after retiring he gained a Bachelor’s degree in Hydrography and Meteorology and worked as a hydrographer. He is married with a child. Mr Shabliy was sentenced to 5 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Part One of Article 223.1 (‘Illegal fabrication of explosive devices’) and Part One of Article 222.1 (‘Illegal acquisition and storage of explosives and of explosive devices’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a defendant in the ‘Crimean saboteurs’ case. Mr Shabliy has been held in custody since 15 November 2016.
  52. Shakursky, Ilya Aleksandrovich, was born on 10 April 1996. A resident of the city of Penza, he is an antifascist activist of left-wing persuasion. Prior to his arrest, he studied at the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of the Penza Pedagogical University. He was sentenced to 16 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony followed with 1 year and 6 months of restricted freedom under Part One of Article 205.4 (‘Organisation of a terrorist association’) and Part One of Article 222 (‘Illegal storage of firearms and ammunition’) and Part One of Article 222.1 (‘Illegal storage of explosives’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Set case, an organisation declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group. He has been held in custody since 27 October 2017.
  53. Shatrovsky, Vyacheslav Robertovich, was born on 29 June 1969. A resident of the town of Sharia in Kostroma Oblast. He worked in Moscow as a construction worker. He was detained on Pushkinskaya square in Moscow on 5 November 2017. He was sentenced to 3 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Part One of Article 318 (‘Use of force against a public official’) of the Russian Criminal Code in the context of the persecution of real and alleged supporters of the Russian nationalist leader Vyacheslav Maltsev. Mr Shatrovsky has been held in custody since 5 November 2017.
  54. Shevchenko, Anastasia Nukzaryevna, was born on 23 October 1979. A resident of the city of Rostov-On-Don, she is an opposition activist and a member of the Board of the Civic Networking Movement ‘Otkryraya Rossiya’. She was charged under Article 284.1 (‘Carrying out activities in the territory of the Russian Federation of a foreign or international non-governmental organisation whose activities in the territory of the Russian Federation are designated as undesirable’). She has been under house arrest since 23 January 2019.
  55. Shishkin, Igor Dmitriyevich, was born on 24 August 1991. A resident of the city of Saint Petersburg, he is an antifascist activist of left-wing persuasion. He was sentenced to 3 years and 6 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Part Two of Article 205.4 (‘Participation in a terrorist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code in connection with the Set case, an organisation declared to be an Anarchist terrorist group. He has been held in custody since 25 January 2018.
  56. Shumkov, Oleksandr Serhiyovych, was born on 19 September 1989. A resident of the city of Kherson in Ukraine, he holds the Ukrainian nationality. At the time of his arrest, he served in the Ukrainian Armed Forces and worked as an investigator at the Military Prosecutor's Office of the Kherson garrison. He was sentenced to 4 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Part Two of Article 282.2 (‘Participation in the activities of an extremist organisation’) of the Russian Criminal Code as an alleged member of the Ukrainian nationalist organisation ‘Right Sector’ (‘Pravy Sektor’) banned in Russia. Mr. Shumkov has formally been in custody since 6 September 2017.
  57. Sidorov, Yan Vladimirovich, was born on 9 October 1999. A resident of the city of Rostov-on-Don, he is a third-year student of the trade school of the Rostov branch of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. He was sentenced to 6 years and 6 months of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony under Part Three of Article 30 in conjunction with Part One of Article 212 (‘Attempt to organise mass riots’) of the Russian Criminal Code in the context of the persecution of real and alleged supporters of the Russian nationalist leader Vyacheslav Maltsev. Mr Sidorov was formally placed in custody on 10 November 2017, being actually deprived of freedom since 5 November 2017.
  58. Sinitsa, Vladislav Yuryevich (alias Max Steklov), was born on 17 June 1989. A resident of the city of Lyubertsy in Moscow Oblast, he holds a higher education degree. Prior to his arrest, he worked as a manager. He was sentenced under Point ’a’ of Part Two of Article 282 (‘Actions aimed at inciting hatred and enmity towards a social group committed publicly using the Internet, with a threat of violence’) to 5 years of imprisonment in general-regime penal colony. He has been held in custody since 3 August 2019.
  59. Smyshlyayev, Maxim Nikolayevich, was born on 22 December 1982. He is a resident of the city of Rostov-on-Don of left persuasions. At the time of his arrest, he worked at a McDonald’s outlet and studied extramurally at the Institute of History and International Relations of the Southern Federal University. He was sentenced to 10 years of imprisonment in a strict-regime penal colony under Part Three of Article 205.1 (‘Complicity in the preparation of a terrorist act’) of the Russian Criminal Code for having allegedly aided a minor holding the citizenship of Ukraine in the preparation of a terrorist act that did not take place. Mr Smyshlyayev has been held in custody since 22 April 2016.
  60. Surovtsev, Sergei Yurievich, was born on 30 September 1989. A resident of the city of Moscow, he is a programmer and an IT-businessman. He was sentenced to 2 years and 6 months of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under under Part One of Article 318 (‘Use of force against a public official’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a protester who took part in the manifestation in central Moscow on 27 July 2019. He has been held in custody since 28 November 2019.
  61. Tsvetkova, Yulia Vladimirovna, was born on 25 May 1993. A resident of the city of Komsomolsk-on-Amur in Khabarovsk Krai, she is a feminist artist and theatre director. She is charged under point ‘b’ of Part Three of Article 242 (‘Illegal production and circulation of pornographic materials using the Internet’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a manager of the feminist body-positive online page ‘Vagina Monologues’. She has been under house arrest since 23 November 2019.
  62. Uzhakhov, Malsag Musayevich, was born on 9 November 1952. A resident of the village of Barsuki of the Nazran district of the Republic of Ingushetia, he is the chair of the Council of the Teips (clans) of the Ingush People and a member of the Presidium of the World Congress of the Ingush People. He holds a higher education degree. He is married and is a pensioner. He was charged with committing a crime under Part Three of Article 33 in conjunction with Part Two of Article 318 (‘Organising acts of violence endangering the life or health of public officials’), Part Two of Article 239 (‘Presiding over an association inducing individuals to refuse to discharge their civil duties or to commit other unlawful deeds’), and Part One of Article 282.1 (‘Organisation of the activities of an extremist association’) of the Russian Criminal Code after the clashes of protesters with police in Magas on 27 March 2019. He has been held in custody since 19 April 2019.
  63. Zhukov, Kirill Sergeyevich, was born on 13 October 1990. He is a civil society activist. He was sentenced to 3 years of imprisonment in a general-regime penal colony under Part One of Article 318 (‘Use of force against a public official’) of the Russian Criminal Code as a protester who took part in the manifestation in central Moscow on 27 July 2019. He has been held in custody since 1 August 2019.